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Saturday, December 22, 2012

Padre Pio did throw John Paul II out of the Confessional comment

Padre Pio never told John Paul II that he would be Pope. In an article in Inside the Vatican, John Paul II was asked about this and admitted that Padre Pio never told him this. But the myth was spread all around nevertheless. But Padre Pio did throw John Paul II out of the Confessional during his visit to San Giovanni Rotondo in 1947.

pituatory gland and testosterone

Testosterone is an anabolic steroid that promotes facial and pubic hair growth, deepening of the voice and growth of male sexual organs. High testosterone levels can pose both beneficial and detrimental health changes in both sexes.

Read more: Causes of High Testosterone Levels |…
Testosterone Production

Testosterone is an androgen steroid hormone generated in both men and women. It is typically associated with men--it is, after all, the main male sex hormone. Testosterone is also produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands of women.

Considerations for High Testosterone Levels

Testosterone levels in our bodies can change due to one of two reasons: natural production and artificial production. In men, the testes mainly produce testosterone, and the pituitary gland manages it. In women, the ovaries, placenta and adrenal glands produce much smaller amounts of the hormone. Testosterone is synthesizable and therefore can be produced artificially for injection or oral intake in the quest for various health benefits, such as bone strength and ovarian function.

Read more: Causes of High Testosterone Levels |…
Beyond diet, women can be prone to high testosterone levels due to causes such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS. Estimates range from 5 to 10 percent regarding how many women are affected. Symptoms can include weight gain, abnormal masculine-associated traits and irregular ovulation or menstruation. PCOS is one of the top causes of infertility. While PCOS causes are non-definitive, suspicions parallel something outlined above: diet. While a high fat-protein diet can result in high testosterone levels, diabetes and obesity are thought to contribute to PCOS.

Another cause for high testosterone levels in women could be Cushing's syndrome, though a link has not been proven. Cigna states that high testosterone levels could indicate that a woman suffers from Cushing's.

Read more: Causes of High Testosterone Levels |…


Caffeine Increases Testosterone…

Looking for a pre-workout energy boost that can also help jack up your natural testosterone levels? Well just reach for a cup of Joe before you hit the gym!
Bodybuilders and athletes have been know to use caffeine (i.e. caffeine pills, energy drinks, coffee, caffeine & ephedrine stack, etc.) prior to training to help increase mental focus, energy levels, and workout intensity. Basically it gives you a good swift kick in the arse before hitting the gym, we all need one of those from time to time.
But the caffeine is doing more than just increasing energy…
It is also increasing testosterone levels! New Zealand researchers have found that taking caffeine induced higher blood levels of testosterone during weight training.
And of course we all know that higher levels of testosterone helps with muscle growth, recovery, reducing bodyfat, building strength, and increasing sex drive. I’ve always drank a cup of black coffee prior to my workouts for the energy boost, but now it appears that the caffeine may also be helping build more muscle mass due to increased testosterone levels. A nice added perk if you ask me!
(Note: this study was published in the International Journal of Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism 18: 131-141, 2008)

italians testosterone

Mediterranean's have great beards /body hair, off al humans living on planet earth they have the strongest hair development. Its also a fact they have a 40% more testosterone productions then northern Europeans. But why do they have stronger beard development then other ethnic groups? We have to ask ourselves what Is the function of this hair all over our body?

-Well the primary and most important reason is to isolate against 'extreme' temperatures, compare it to a window with double glass, in the winter its warmer then single glass and in the summer its cooler. The layer of air in between helps us isolate.

- The secondary function of body/facial hair is to protect our skin against the sun. U probably already noticed that people living in very sunny countries close to the equator have dark pigmented hair. But then u wonder why do they have black hairs? I remember my physics teachers saying that black attracts heat and a white colour repels it. Wouldn't it be more logic that people living closer to the equator all have white hair to reflect the sunbeams? Well no, because its more interesting than that, the pigmentation in our skin/hair mainly comes from 'melanin' and melanin has this interesting properties against UV radiation.
"They can protect microorganism, such as bacteria and fungi, against stresses that involve cell damage by solar UV radiation or generation of reactive oxygen species"
So the more melanin u have, the better u are protected against those nasty UV beams.
Redheads for example have a very low amount of the dark pigment eumelanin in them, this way there more sensitive to the sun. An estimated 2% of the world's population are redheads and mainly come from countries with are 'northern' and don't have a lot of sun.

To come back to the Mediterranean's and why they have the strongest beard/body hair growth its relatively easy.
All the countries shown on the map have the best environment to stimulate the hair growth, they all border the Mediterranean sea which cools down a lot in the winter and thus giving cold winters and warming up in the summer. Europe also has a good "Circulacion termohalina"( don't know how to translate it) which warms Europe.
So they need a lot of fur to handle this temperature conditions

On top of that these countries are closer to the equator wich stimulates the hair even more to protect against those sun ray's.

Also pls note that facial/body hair are Decreasing, this has several reasons but if u look at it through a very broad scale of evolution the reason is
people wearing cloths and thus the isolation function is not anymore needed of the hair.


Oestrogenic remains in water/meat.

I would really appreciate any remarks/opinions/discussion about this threat, also understand that there are still functions yet to discover but this is the best accepted theory so far.


italians testosterone

Yeah that is true. Men with higher Testosterone levels stop growing earlier on average.
But, That is actually a burden.

The reason Asians & Whites might be more Intelligent than Blacks & Latinos is due to going through puberty later. Same could be said with Men vs Women.

But, all in all I find it hard to believe Mexicans have the highest Testosterone levels.

They have trouble growing facial hair. They often have quite high pitch voices.

I find it just as hard to believe that Mexicans have the lowest Estrogen levels.

I live in an area with alot of Mexicans. I see more Mexican men with Man boobs than any other race.

I see nothing in the characteristics of Mexicans that would make me think they had high Testosterone & Low Estrogen.

People like Italians, African Americans ect yeah I see alot of high Testosterone traits in them. But, I don't see it in Mexicans.

Nobel Winner's Theories Raise Uproar in Berkeley Geneticist's views strike many as racist, sexist

Tom Abate / SF Chronicle 13nov00

James Watson Racist SexistNobel laureate James Watson, whose co-discovery of DNA revolutionized the field of genetics, has provoked a scientific controversy by suggesting there are biochemical links between skin color and sexual activity and between thinness and ambition.
Watson advanced his thesis during a guest lecture at the University of California at Berkeley last month, prompting several faculty members to brand his remarks as racist, sexist and unsupported by any scientific data.
Witnesses were flabbergasted when the 72-year-old discoverer of the double helix suggested there was a biochemical link between exposure to sunlight and sexual urges. ``That's why you have Latin lovers,'' Watson said. ``You've never heard of an English lover. Only an English patient.''
In a lecture hall jammed with more than 200 Berkeley students and faculty members, Watson showed a slide of sad-faced model Kate Moss to support his contention that thin people are unhappy and therefore more ambitious.
``Whenever you interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not going to hire them,'' Watson said.
Even those who chalked up Watson's remarks to his penchant for deliberately stirring things up were concerned that hearing such views expressed by a Nobel laureate would fuel irresponsible speculation about how genes might influence behavior.
``Doesn't a guy like Jim Watson have the responsibility to make this not ugly?'' asked UC Berkeley biologist Michael Botchan, a Watson protege. ``Yes. But I cannot tell Jim Watson to change his ways.''
Watson, who shared a Nobel Prize for his role in figuring out the structure of DNA in 1953, and who launched the Human Genome Project in 1990, declined to answer questions about his lecture.
However, a spokesman at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a research institute on Long Island where Watson serves as president, confirmed the gist of his remarks and said Watson has voiced similar sentiments at other scientific gatherings.
Berkeley biology professor Susan Marqusee walked out about a third of the way through Watson's hourlong lecture, titled ``The Pursuit of Happiness: Lessons from pom-C.''


``I was kind of in shock most of the time,'' Marqusee said. ``He took a lot of what I consider sexist and racist stereotypes and claimed a biochemical basis without presenting any data.''
Botchan, who presided over the session, said Watson was merely trying to call attention to a protein (pom-C) that helps create several different hormones: One determines skin color (melanin); another enhances a sense of well-being (beta endorphins); and the third plays a role in fat metabolism (leptin).
Botchan said Watson was wondering out loud why evolution had linked these hormones, and whether the interrelationship of these mood and behavior-influencing compounds might be affected by exposure to sunlight.
Unfortunately, said Botchan, Watson advanced his hypothesis with ``comments that were crude and sexist and potentially racist.'' But Botchan, who did post-graduate work under Watson, said he doesn't think the Nobel laureate is racist or sexist, merely insensitive.
``Jim says startling things,'' he said. ``He is a person who tends to shock people.''
For instance, Botchan said, Watson once suggested Japan should be bombed for dragging its feet on supporting the Human Genome Project.
Berkeley genetics professor Thomas Cline said Watson's lecture ``crossed over the line'' from being provocative to being irresponsible because the senior scientist failed to separate fact from conjecture.
``If he wants to give a talk like this in his living room, that's his business, but to give it in a setting where it's supposed to be scientific is wrong,'' Cline said, adding that listening to Watson at the podium was ``more embarrassing than having a creation scientist up there.''


The controversial talk was profoundly disturbing to some graduate students in Berkeley's molecular biology department, who ultimately brought Watson's comments into the public spotlight.
``I found it really offensive,'' said Sarah Tegen, one of several graduate students who recounted Watson's remarks.
She said Watson happened to be in Berkeley when the department needed a speaker for a regular scientific seminar. The lecture hall, which seats around 200 people, filled to overflowing as word spread that Watson, one of the founders of modern biology, would speak.
Watson, who has a reputation as an engaging lecturer, started off describing an experiment by scientists at the University of Arizona, who injected male patients with an extract of melanin. They intended to test whether they could chemically darken the men's skin as a skin cancer protection, only to observe an unusual side effect -- the men developed sustained and unprovoked erections.
``He said this (melanin injection) is even better than Viagra because you don't even have to think about sex,'' Tegen recalled.
``Then he launched into this whole thing about the sun and sexual drive,'' added Berkeley graduate student Jill Fuss. She said Watson showed slides of women in bikinis and contrasted them to veiled Muslim women, to suggest that controlling exposure to sun may suppress sexual desire and vice versa.
Watson reportedly went on to suggest that people who live in northern climates drink more alcohol to compensate for the unhappiness they suffer because of sunlight deprivation. Then he delved into what he presented as the bad news, good news aspects of being fat, the students said. The bad news, said Watson, is that thin people are more ambitious and therefore make better workers. On the other hand, fat people may be more sexual, Watson told the assembly, because their bloodstreams contain higher levels of leptin, one of the hormones derived from pom-C. He used a slide of a Reubens painting to illustrate the assertion.
Tegen was offended by Watson's repeated references to women. ``To be a woman in science is difficult enough as it is without one of your own demeaning women,'' she said.
Jeffrey Friedman, a molecular geneticist at Rockefeller University and a leading authority on leptin and obesity, had this reaction when presented with a distilled version of Watson's remarks: ``People can speculate about anything they want,'' he said. ``But I know of no data linking differences in weight to any particular set of personality differences.''


If Watson's theories are judged as being beyond the scientific pale, he would not be the first Nobel laureate to fall from grace after winning the highest honor in science.
Now-deceased Stanford University professor William Shockley, who shared a Nobel for inventing the transistor, was ostracized during his lifetime for calling certain races genetically inferior, and for suggesting that people with IQs under 100 be paid bonuses if they agreed to be sterilized.
Former biotech scientist Kary Mullis, who won a Nobel for inventing a process to multiply DNA samples, was marginalized after he lent his name to several dubious causes, including the discredited notion that HIV is not the cause of AIDS.
No matter how history judges Watson's emerging views on pom-C, his fame guarantees a broad audience for his views, however politically unsettling or scientifically unsound they may be.
Berkeley biology professor Caroline Kane, who did not attend Watson's talk, said she was disappointed that ``a figure who looms so large in the science of the late 20th century'' would take such a provocative stance in the absence of the precise data that is the hallmark of good science.
``Sometimes, Nobel laureates are asked to give their opinions on areas where they should keep their mouths shut,'' Kane said. ``Unfortunately, Jim just likes to talk.''

melanin injection is even better than Viagra

Melanin linked to Virility, According to Nobel Prize Winner, James Watson.

"Witnesses were flabbergasted when the 72-year-old discoverer of the double helix suggested there was a biochemical link between exposure to sunlight and sexual urges."

"Watson, started off describing an experiment by scientists at the University of Arizona, who injected male patients with an extract of melanin. They intended to test whether they could chemically darken the men's skin as a skin cancer protection, only to observe an unusual side effect -- the men developed sustained and unprovoked erections."
"``He said this (melanin injection) is even better than Viagra because you don't even have to think about sex,""

"Watson reportedly went on to suggest that people who live in northern climates drink more alcohol to compensate for the unhappiness they suffer because of sunlight deprivation."

white americans are mixed with black

Same thing in France and Britain.

The negros came to Portugal in the 1970's, after Angola and Mozambique decolonized, the Negroes have only been in Portugal a short time, not long enough to effect genetics, and make up about 5% of the pop.

In the US, blacks make up 12% of pop.

Magnesium Deficiency Means Less Testosterone

Scientists at the University Hospital of Parma came to the conclusion that magnesium deficiency in older men lead to lower testosterone and IGF-1 levels in their blood. In the conducted study all of the men that had higher magnesium levels also had higher testosterone and IGF-1 levels. Almost four hundred men of age 65 and older participated in the study.
Today, people are eating smaller and smaller amounts of fruits and vegetables every day, and because these are the biggest sources of magnesium in human's diet - magnesium levels in the blood are decreasing.According to some studies this magnesium deficiency leads to lower testosterone levels. In another study conducted by Turkish and Italian scientists, testosterone levels were increased in athletes by giving them one gram of magnesium sulphate a day.
One supplement that is known to naturally increase testosterone levels is ZMA. (Zinc monomethionine aspartate and Magnesium Aspartate)

So what is the connection between magnesium deficiency and low testosterone levels? The scientists don't know exactly but they suspect that inflammatory processes and increasing damage from free radicals decrease testosterone levels in the blood as well as the production. They think that inflammation is getting worse the lower the magnesium levels are.
One assumption is that if cells contain more magnesium molecules, they may release fewer inflammation factors because anti-oxidant enzymes need magnesium.
Besides low testosterone and IGF-1 levels, magnesium deficiency can cause disease states that include neuromuscular disorders,coronary heart disease, kidney diseases, asthma, migraines, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy complications, bone problems and even obesity!

italian testosterone

Thank you for getting back to me so quickley!
I dont eat red meat, I dont drink coffee or any caffinated products, and the only dairy I eat is a little cheese and ice cream.
I'm also not a weight lifter.
In the past year I have noticed myself getting hair where I didn't before, and getting darker hair where I already had hair.
Does it sound like I could have PCOS?
Whether or not you think I do, how could they figure out if I'm having problems with my ovaries? By doing a ultrasound? Are there other tests?
Thanks again.
The text above is a follow-up to ...

I've recently had some blood work done because I have been missing my cycle since Aug 2006 (has since come back...this week).
I asked my doctor about my test results and it shows that the testosterone in my body was at 3.60 nmol/L and the normal range is 0.20-2.90 nmol/L. I'm obviously above normal range. Are my results extremely high? Can I take some sort of herbs/vitamins that can help lower it? I do not want to take anti hormonal medicine.
Hi Kristie,

Thanks for writing.  I will try to answer your questions but first I have to say that you should consult with a physician or medical professional if you have any health concerns.

Okay, there are several factors to consider when you have a high testosterone level.  In females testosterone is produced by the ovaries, and high levels can be influenced by eating a diet with a lot of red meats, by drinking a lot of coffee or caffeine loaded drinks, or by eating and drinking a lot of dairy products.

Testosterone levels can vary with each individual, and can also be affected by heredity (genetics), or by weight training or weight lifting.  (I have heard of women missing periods during heavy weight training).  So to say whether or not your results are extremely high would be just a guess on my part, since they tend to vary so much in everyone.  

Because levels can vary so much, your level which is only .70 over the normal range, doesn't sound like that much over the top.  So in addition to the missing your cycles, unless you are experiencing hot flashes, excess body hair, anxiety, moodiness, or any other hormonal induced symptoms, it may not be anything to worry about.

Aerobic exercise may help, and cutting down or avoiding the foods and drinks I mentioned above.  But again, unless it is causing you any major adverse symptoms I'm sure you will be just fine.  But if you are overly concerned about it maybe it would be a good idea to see an endocrinologist, or a gynecologist.  Either one can set your mind at ease.

I am not aware of any vitamin or herb that will lower testosterone.  If your body is producing more than normal, and the foods and drinks aren't affecting it, then maybe you are experiencing some kind of hormone imbalance due to some kind of ovarian problem.  Again, a trip to your gynecologist would help to either rule out or discover if this is the cause.  

I hope this answers your question sufficiently, and if I can be of any more help please feel free to write back in a followup question.

Take care,

Get the answer below

Hi Kristie,

Yes, PCOS can cause testosterone levels to increase.  Steroid medication can also cause it to rise, or if you have high levels of insulin in your system.  Are you a diabetic, by any chance ?  And you never mentioned your age ?  Although as you get older and approach menopause your testosterone levels will begin to drop.

Hormone levels can be tested either from blood or saliva.  Ultrasound only gives them a picture and may show up a cyst (PCOS), but will not actually indicate a cause for increased testosterone.

Your heritage could also be a factor.  Being careful not to offend anyone, I would guess that anyone of Italian, Greek, or middle-eastern descent could possibly have higher testosterone levels than, say, someone of scandinavian or other parts of the world.  I know, I am really reaching here.  But I'm just throwing ideas out there since this is a very complex issue it is very hard to nail down the exact cause.  It could also be something as simple as a vitamin or mineral deficiency.  This can be tested by doing a hair follicle analysis.  Usually only alternative practitioners do these types of tests.

The levels of testosterone are usually balanced out by estrogen, so perhaps low estrogen may be the problem.  But again, this points to the ovaries.

Depending on the area of the country you live, there may be a Holistic practioner out there that has some electronic testing and diagnostic equipment that will narrow down the cause of your problem.  I know of such a doctor in Louisville, Ky .

I hope some of this info helps, and I'm sorry that I can't offer more help.  But if you have any more questions please write back and I will try to help.  

Take care,

italian produce the most testerone level than any other races

Italian Testosterone
May 20, 2005 The author of a wieght training article I have recently read, has made annecdotal references to Italians having higher than average (caucasian) testosterone levels. The people who write these articles are not held liable for any form of accreditation, and can basically express any opinions they have formulated without genuine scientific foundation. Never the less, being Italian myself, this put me on a hunt for fact. I have ran across numerous posts on this website where you have alluded to this "higher than average" predispostion. Where can I go to read more, or find detailed information regarding these testosterone claims based upon ethnicity?
Response from Dr. Frascino
Well, this is an HIV information Web site. As for scientific validation of testosterone variability related to ethnicity, I'd actually have to do a bit of research myself. My comments here were made in jest. (Hopefully, that was obvious). Of course, there is indisputable scientific data confirming, beyond any reasonable doubt, that Italians are hornier than any other ethnic group and that Democrats have (and enjoy) sex much more than Republicans.
Dr. Bob

indio came from mongolian comment

I have mixed ancestry, Amerindian and some Caucasoid. I see Mongolians as my forefathers, many times I've been asked if I was Asian or Eurasian. I wish some North Americans natives recognised the fact that us, the Native people of the American continent, came from Mongolia, and that we are not such a "different" race from Mongolians. My respect and sincere admiration to all of you, brothers.

Thursday, December 20, 2012

충청도 사람과 일본 사람은 비슷하다.

이 름   난CIS-AB형조회수31
제 목   충청도 사람과 일본사람의 성격이나 혼내도 비슷하다...음식도... 다음 요즘 트위터 미투데이 페이스북 싸이월드 C로그 

충청도 사람들은 유머감각이 좋은데 일본 사람들 직접 보닌깐 특별히 유머 감각이 좋다는 편견은 없었는데 왠지 충청도 사람들과 비슷한 유머를 구사한다 충청도 사람들의 유머는 뭔가 엉뚱한 그런면이 있는데...일본애들도 그런줄 몰랏는데 겪어보닌깐 우리 충청도식이랑 비슷한 엉뚱한 코드의 유머를 써서 비슷한 거 같에서 놀랬다, 속마음은 충청도 사람이 잘표현을 안하는데, 일본 사람들도 혼내라고 해서 속마음을 표현을 잘안하더라.... 음식도 안짜고 안맵게 적당하게 간 잘맞춰서 먹는 것도 비슷하고...

IP Address : 98.169.***.***
2012-12-20 15:23:50
트위터 보내기페이스북 보내기미투데이 보내기C로그 보내기요즘 보내기

전체댓글수8| 욕설이나 비방 댓글은 누군가에게 큰 상처로 남을 수 있습니다.
1 어쩌지 다 틀린데|14.33.***.***  2012.12.20 15:25
난CIS-AB형 타지인들은 잘 모를 꺼임....충청도 사람만 알 수 있는것...|98.169.***.***  2012.12.20 15:27
재미똥퍼 엇비슷하긴한데 충청도도 조선이라 폭력성이 강하다|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:28
난CIS-AB형 ㄴ하하하 인정...타지 사람들이 충청도 사람들이 온순하다는 편견이 있는데 진짜 폭력성이 강한 사람이 많음 특히 여자들 거칠음....이것도 충청도 사람만 알 수 있는 거...경상도 사람들은 여자들이 거칠 거라는 편견이 있는데 말투때문에 실제로 겪어보면 충청도 여자랑 비교해서 정반대로 온순해서 놀랐음....|98.169.***.***  2012.12.20 15:30
난CIS-AB형 충청도 남자들은 내가 타지역 남자들이랑 비교할때 다른 인종이라서 그런지 남성호르몬이 많이 나오고 눈이 부리부리 크고 털이 많이 나서, 성격이 편견과는 다르게 되게 남자 답고 거칠음 자연적으로, 근데 문화적으로는 온순한 문화임....체질적으로나 신체적으론 사실 되게 남성 다움...|98.169.***.***  2012.12.20 15:32
재미똥퍼 충남에 예산이란 동네에 가면 조선대표급 장인(목장, 무슨장.. 이런 전통기술)들이 꽤 많은데 이런것도 솔까 일본과 흡사하긴 하다|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:32
재미똥퍼 필자가 보기엔 거친성향을 커버하기 위해 발달된 문화라 본다. 사무라이,부도카들이 많은 일본에서 예의범절이 발달한 것과 같은 이유. 일본과 충청도에선 싸움 잘못나면 사람이 죽는다. 조선 타지에서는 뭐 싸우다가도 쏘주한잔 이면 형님아우 하는데 충남만 그런게 안통한다고 알고있다.|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:33
난CIS-AB형 충청도와 일본의 정교한 손기술의 장인문화가 다 백제 문화에서 온 거 같다...|98.169.***.***  2012.12.20 15:34
요시츠네 부친 고향이 충북이라 명절마다 가지만 다른 인종이라는 느낌은 없는데...|58.65.***.***  2012.12.20 15:36
재미똥퍼 솔까 공주-부여 백제벨트는 최소한 일본 나라-교토-오사카 벨트랑 문화가 어느정도 호환된다고 본다.|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:36
댓글 10개 돌파!!
아이폰5 진짜 출시일은…
재미똥퍼 요시츠네>솔까 내륙인 충북은 충남과는 붕까가 또 다르다고 볼수있다. 충북은 거의 명예 강원,경상 수준.|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:37
난CIS-AB형 오호....! 듣고 보니 그런듯.....근데 그건 남자다운 거랑 관계없이 속이 좁아서 그런 거 같음 ㅋㅋㅋ 충청도 사람들 속 진짜 좁음...그런거 보니 일본 사람들도 충청도 사람처럼 속 좁은 거 같네....|98.169.***.***  2012.12.20 15:37
재미똥퍼 충북은 정치성향 마저 강원,경상과 같은 패턴을 가지고 있다. 충남은 이번 선거에서도 5:5 박빙.|75.84.***.***  2012.12.20 15:38
난CIS-AB형 ㅇㅇ 충북 사람들은 말이 빠르고, 좀 반대 되는게 많음...진짜 강원도 경상도 아니면 경기도랑 비슷하고. 사실 충남이랑 전북이랑 문화가 하나고... 충남이랑 전북이 일본이랑 관계 된 것 같음...|98.169.***.***

타격에서 가장 맞추기 힘든 상대는 장신의 긴리치의 왼손잡이이다.

ila님 다른댓글보기
타격에서 가장 맞추기 힘든상대가 누군지 아나요?? 바로 장신의 왼손잡이입니다.

콘딧 전은 솔직히 카운터 플라잉니킥이 나올줄 누가 알았나여?? 콘딧전 빼도 김동현선수 안면을 정확히 맞춘선수는 극히 드뭅니다.좀비 디아즈도 정면 타격전에서는 못맞췄죠,,
장신의 왼손잡이이고 거리싸움에 능한 김동현선수의 타격은 상대방입장으로썬 굉장히 까다로운 스타일입니다
굳이 타격에서 시야르에 밀린다고는 절대 생각되지 않네요.
ㅋㅋㅋ 제 생각과 같군요 격투기에 대해 잘 모르시는 분들은 김동현
선수의 스타일을 굉장히 욕하지요 사실 김동현선수의 장점은 긴리치와
장신 그리고 왼손잡이라는 점 이지요 그리고 단단한 레슬링과 유도베이스의 균형 감각은 상대방이 더욱 들어오기 어렵다고 봅니다

Total E-M81 in Spain

UPDATE (13/03/2012) : Added the samples from Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012, which includes Navarrese, Burgos (Castilla),  La Rioja and Cantabria.

Spanish Basques     n=2/55    3.6%    Cruciani 2004.
Basques                  n=1/45    2.2%    Underhill 2000. 
Basque Country      n=1/116  0.9%    Adams et al.
Basques                 n=1/168   0.6%    Capelli 2009 (Alonso et al. + Garcia et al)
Basques                  n=1/43    2.3%    Capelli 2009 from Bosch et al.
Total Basques  6/427 = 1.4%

Navarra, Cinco Villas       n=0/42    0.0%       López-Parra 2009
Lapurdi, Navarra              n =0/66   0.0%       Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Central/Western Navarra  n = 1/60  1.7%       Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Northwestern Navarra     n = 0/51   0.0%       Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Valle Roncar, Navarra     n = 2/53   3.77%     Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Total Navarra :   3/272 = 1.10%

Pasiegos*               n=15/64     24%        Maca-Meyer 2003.
Lebaniegos             n=0/37       0.0%       Maca-Meyer 2003.
Other Cantabrians   n=6/36      16.7%      Maca-Meyer 2003.
Cantabria               n=17/161   13.0%      Brion et al.
Cantabria               n=1/18        5.56%     Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Total Cantabria      n=39/316 = 12.23%

La Rioja,   n = 0/54      0.0%                 Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012

Asturians             n=2/90       2.2%       Cruciani 2004.
Asturias              n=0/20       0.0%       Adams et al.   
Total Asturias      n=2/110 = 1.82%

Aragón                   n=3/34    8.8%     Adams et al.
Aragón, Jacetania   n=0/31    0.0%     López-Parra 2009
Northern Aragón    n =0/27   0.0%     Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012 
Aragón :  3/92  3.26 %

Galicia             n=2/19      10.5%    Flores et al.2004
Galicia             n=9/88      10.2%    Adams et al.
Galicia             n=12/292    4.1%    Brion et al.
Total Galicia    23/399= 5.76%

Valencia            n=2/31     6.5%       Flores et al.2004
Valencia            n=4/73     5.48%    Adams et al.
Total Valencia   6/104 = 5.77%

Castille                  n=1/21     4.8%     Flores et al.2004
Burgos                  n =1/20    5.0%     Martínez-Cruz et al. 2012
Castilla Mancha     n=2/63     3.2%    Adams et al.
Castile NE            n=3/31      9.7%    Adams et al.
Castille NW          n=10/100 10.0%   Adams et al.
Total Castilla   17/235 = 7.23%

Catalans            n=0/16     0.0%     Bosch et al.2001
Catalonia           n=1/80    1.25%   Adams et al.
Vall d'Arán         n=1/25    4.00%   López-Parra 2009
Cerdeña             n=0/37    0.00%   López-Parra 2009
Alt Urgell          n=0/34    0.00%   López-Parra 2009
Total Catalonia  2/192 = 1.04%

Extremadura         n=8/52   15.4%   Adams et al.

Majorca             n=2/62    3.22%    Adams et al.
Minorca             n=3/37    8.1%      Adams et al.
Ibiza                 n=0/54     0.0%      Adams et al.
Balearic Islands : 5/153 = 3.27%

Southern Spaniards   n=1/62      1.6%     Scozzari 2001.
Huelva, Andalusia     n=5/167   2.99%    Ambrosio 2010.
Huelva, Andalusia     n=1/22      4.5%     Flores et al.2004
Seville, Andalusia     n=7/155     4.5%     Flores et al.2004
Cadiz, Andalusia      n=0/28       0.0%     Flores et al.2004
Cordoba, Andalusia  n=2/27      7.4%     Flores et al.2004
Malaga, Andalusia   n=3/26     11.5%     Flores et al.2004
Andalusia East         n=2/95      2.1%     Adams et al.
Andalusia West       n=10/73    13.7%    Adams et al.
Andalusians           n=2/37        5.4%     (Capelli 2009)  Bosch et al.
Total Andalusia :  33/692 = 4.77%

TOTAL SPAIN =   147/3.098 =  4.74 %

*without Pasiegos = 132/3034 = 4.35 %

Canarians were not included for obvious reasons.

Observations :

- We obtain a result of between 4 and 5%, slightly lower than that observed for Portugal (5.73%).

- The closest spanish region to the national average would be Andalusia (4.77%).

- As mentioned before, I reiterate the lack of correlation between islamic history in Iberia and these subclade frequencies, such that Andalusia (the place were Islamic religion lasted longer, specifically Western Andalusia) has less E-M81 than some northern regions such as Galicia, Cantabria, Valencia, Castille, which essentially means the presence of this subclade in Iberia has very little to do with the islamic period, in other words, the moors (in the ethnic sense)  had a very minoritary presence in Spain.

- Another obersvation I make, is the difference between Galicia and it's close neighbour Asturias, which has amongst the lowest frequency of the spanish communities.

- The lowest presence is in Catalonia, with aprox. 1%,  followed by Basques (1.4%) and the highest in Cantabria (12.75% with Pasiegos, 9.8% without Pasiegos).

- Obviously the samples of the various communities are still very small and unrepresentitative, so this percentages are only orientative.

- Compared to other nations, the closest country besides Portugal in terms of similar percentages, would be France, with 4.42 % (see here).

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

The Moor's Head And Why It Is Found In Heraldry And Other Demonstrative Uses

The Moor's Head And Why It Is Found In Heraldry And Other Demonstrative Uses
The following discussion is offered to help explain the the use of Moor's Heads on many of the Morin family Coats of Arms and the Mauran Coat of Arms. The Moran family of Ballina, Ireland's Coat of Arms is described with "a demi Saracen" above it and so some of it may explain that device as well.
The research shown below was collected from the sources shown
Heraldry: The Moor's Head (from Victoria and Albert's Museum).

Medallion, 1500-1600. Museum no. C.101-1934 (click image for larger version)

The objects featured here all include the head of a moor, or black African, in profile. The use of the 'moor's head' as a heraldic device dates from the 13th century. The emblem has connections to the Crusades, reflecting associating individual families with victories over the moors. Heraldic devices and emblems were included on objects like those featured here to indicate ownership.
The device may also have connections with the Hohenstaufan dynasty, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1138 to 1254. The Emperor Henry VI (1165-1197) kept black African retainers. His son Frederick II (1194-1250), who was also King of Sicily, took a keen interest in the black Muslim population that had remained in Sicily after the island's return to Christian rule in 1061. He established an enclave for these Muslims near his palace in Lucera in southern Italy, and recruited his musicians and elite bodyguard from the community.
Frederick's use of black Africans can be explained by his desire to present himself as a 'world ruler'. Their presence symbolised the extent of his power. Other families may have adopted the moor's head on their arms to associate themselves with the Hohenstaufan dynasty.
By 1400 a moor - as a crowned head in profile, or occasionally as a full figure - was relatively common in German heraldry. In time, its usage spread to almost every European country.
For examples of this please see this link to a PDF files in Slovenian/German from the website of Peter Hawlina showing the shields of many European cities, those with blanks shields he has yet to obtain the graphic or the city does not have one > The website is at
The work of Stefan Schwoon is also reflected and referenced herein.

Bookbinding (detail), about 1520. Museum no. AL.287-1883 (click image for larger version)
By the 16th century, when the stained glass medallion above was made, the moor's head had become a conventional motif. The medallion features the arms of the Tucher, a large prosperous German family from Nuremberg. They had acquired wealth and power through trade with Italy in the early 14th century, later expanding their operations to France and the Low Countries.
The moor's head device was also used in Italian heraldry, especially by families in the north and centre of the peninsula. The earliest known example appears in the 11th century. Its use by families such as the Saraceni of Siena, the Morandi of Genoa, the Morese of Bologna, the Negri of Vicenza and the Pagani of Saluzzo suggests that the device was intended as a pun on surnames similar to the Italian words for moor, negro and saracen. However, the Pucci family also used it. The moor in Italian art was usually depicted wearing a white band tied above the eyes, instead of the German imperial crown, to represent victory over the moors during the Crusades. These families may have originally acquired their surnames from crusader ancestors.
The binding shown above, on a book of Seneca's Tragedies, was made for a member of the Pucci family of Florence. Their adoption of the moor's head was probably influenced by their claim to be descended from Jacopo Saracino, a Florentine nobleman.

Plate (detail), about 1540-44. Museum no. 1693-1855 (click image for larger version)

Originally, the white band worn by the Pucci moor was decorated with three hammers, perhaps symbolising an ancestor's membership of the carpenter's guild. The hammers were later reduced to the form of three letter 'Ts' and the Latin motto 'Tempore tempora tempera', meaning 'Time is a great healer', was added.
An older Pucci motto, 'Candida praecordia' ('White at heart'), probably reflects the meaning of the Italian proverbs 'Viso nero, cuore candido' ('Black face, white heart') and 'Il bruno il bel non toglie' ('Dark skin does not beauty remove'). Variations of these proverbs appear in the mottoes of other Italian families with moor's heads in their arms. They reflect an ancient belief, later adopted and expanded by Christian theologians, that the blackness of Africans was only skin-deep and could conceal the whitest of souls.

Plate (detail), about 1500. Museum no. C2059-1910 (click image for larger version)

In the upper left section of the plate above, Cardinal Antonio Pucci's (1483-1544) shield is displayed. Antonio was created Cardinal in 1531 and adopted by Pope Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici) at the urging of his uncle, Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci. This explains why the shield contains the Medici balls on the left and the Moor's head device of the Pucci family on the right, surmounted by the cardinal's hat.
The plate to the right has a shield with a Moor's head as its centrepiece. Set against a yellow background, the dark colour of his skin contrasts with the white headband and kerchief he wears around his neck. As any number of families used the device, perhaps as a pun on their surnames, it is unclear who may have commissioned the plate.
The moor's head motif is still in use today. The coat of arms of the current pope, Benedict XVI, features the profile of a black man wearing a crown and gold earring.
..Pope Benedict XVI Coat Of Arms Diocese of Freising ancient emblem
In the dexter corner (to the left of the person looking at it) is a Moor's head in natural colour [caput Aethiopum] (brown) with red lips, crown and collar. This is the ancient emblem of the Diocese of Freising, founded in the eighth century, which became a Metropolitan Archdiocese with the name of München und Freising in 1818, subsequent to the Concordat between Pius VII and King Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria (5 June 1817). In an autobiographical work published in 1977, the present pope explained the meaning of these charges for him. The Moor's head represents the universality of the Church, accepting all without distinction of race or class.
Corisican flag ............two examples of the Sardinian Arms
The Moor's head is not rare in European heraldry. It still appears today in the arms of Sardinia and Corsica, as well as in the blazons of various noble families. Italian heraldry, however, usually depicts the Moor wearing a white band around his head instead of a crown, indicating a slave who has been freed; whereas in German heraldry the Moor is shown wearing a crown. The Moor's head is common in the Bavarian tradition and is known as the caput Ethiopicum or the Moor of Freising.
Further Discussion on the Moor's Head from a forum:

The moor's head in the coat-of-arms represents St Corbinianus, the patron saint of the Diocese of Freising; the bishopric of Freising was integrated into Bavaria in 1803. The bishopric had wide-spread possessions in Bavaria as well as in modern-day Austria, Italy and Slovenia where the moor's head has entered local heraldry; by chance I found this website (in Slovenian and German) which traces some of its occurrences.
Stefan Schwoon, 21 Sep 2001

Actually rather odd, since Corbinian was not in fact a Moor. I do not remember the explanation of how he came to be depicted as one.
Joseph McMillan, 21 Sep 2001
There seem to be many legends and theories how the Blackmoor got to represent Freising, and I believe that many are mentioned on the website pointed out by Stefan Schwoon, which deals with an exhibition made in Skofja Loka (Slovenia) that was one of the cities ruled by Freising bishops, as some other cities in that position inherited the Blackmoor in their coats-of-arms. I am far from remembering it clearly, but I think that it is not Corbinianus represented but one of his servants.
Željko Heimer, 21 Sep 2001
Actually we do not know, we can only speculate; and there are many speculations on that topic, for sure! The first seal depicting a crowned head dates from 1286: it shows the whole person of the bishop of Freising, Emicho, and in a small escutcheon at the bottom of the seal, a crowned head. This is the first pictorial evidence of the bishopric coat-of-arms; however, there is no indication, that this crowned head shows a moor. Also later seals include a crowned head, but not a moor.
The first image definitely showing a moor is an illumination from 1316 in the so-called Prädialbuch. So sometime between 1286 and 1316 the crowned head became a crowned moor's head. Since then the crowned moor's head is considered the arms of the bishop of Freising and of his territory, the Hochstift. The Hochstift contained widespread territories in Bavaria (e.g. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Wörth), but also in Slovenia (Skofja Loka) and South Tyrol (Innichen). Many of the cities and municipalities formerly belonging to the Hochstift contain the moor's head in their coat-of-arms. See for instance my pages about the Wörth arms and its historical sources.
The attempts for an interpretation include:
- One of the three Magi (one of them is shown as a moor);
- St. Mauritius (his name is derived from Latin maurus, moor);
- St. Zeno (frequently shown as a moor);
- St. Sigismund (mixed up with St. Mauritius);
- St. Corbinian, the first bishop of Freising, pictures of whom (e.g. on coins) might have become darker over the time and so ended up resembling a moor;
- several other explanations.
The more important thing in the early times of this coat-of-arms seems to be the crown, and not what the head signified. The crown should probably show, that the territory of the bishop of Freising was autonomous, only subject to the Emperor, and not to the Bavarian duke.
Another explanation for the moor might be that bishop Emicho had thick lips and therefore perhaps was nicknamed moor. Some other possible explanations are proposed by Ziegler. In the end, we do not know, though.
Sources: Adolf Wilhelm Ziegler, Der Freisinger Mohr: Eine heimatgeschichtliche Untersuchung zum Freisinger Bischofswappen, Franz X. Seitz & Val. Höfling, Munich 1976; M.F. Schlamp, Der Mohrenkopf im Wapen der Bischöfe von Freising, Frigisinga 7, No. 9-19 (several parts), 1930.
Marcus Schmöger, 7 Oct 2001
From Wikipedia -
In heraldry, a blackamoor may be listed in the blazon, the description of a coat of arms. The isolated head of a moor is called a Maure.
The reasons for the inclusion of a blackamoor head vary. The Moor's head on the crest that appears on the Arms of Lord Kirkcudbright, and in consequence the modern crest badge used by Clan MacLellan is supposed to derive from the killing of a moorish bandit known as Black Morrow.[1] The blazon is a naked arm supporting on the point of a sword, a moor's head.[2] In other cases they appear to depict captives; the flag of Sardinia once depicted four Moors blindfolded, but in recent versions the blindfolds have been raised to become headbands.
From Commonweal Article (July 15, 2005) by Mathew N. Schmalz
But the Moor's head, as encyclopedias of heraldic emblems tell us, is generally a sign of law, authority, and power. Indeed, taking the head of a Muslim "moor" was a particularly potent symbol of triumph in the days when Islam and Christianity battled in Europe and the Holy Land. Some contributors to a very earnest discussion on the American Heraldry Society's Web site suggested that the Moor's head is a potentially explosive image. In response, others observed that even though the features of the Moor were "stereotyped" to the point of resembling a "cartoon," the image itself was most certainly a bust with a red collar, not a severed head.
The term Maure derives from the Phoenician term Mahurin (Westerners). From Mahurin the ancient Greeks derive Mauro meaning black, and later Greeks derive Maurikios after them, the Latin derive Mauri meaning Black African. From the same root we derive: Maur, Maurus, Marra, Moro, Morisco, Mohr, Moritz, Moor, Moru, Maru, Morelo, Maureta, Mauretania, Mauritius, Maureen, Maroon, Morocco, Moore, Maurice, Meuric, Meurig, Morien, Morin, Moryan, Moreto, and such. At one time the whole of the western arm of Africa (what is now West Africa, from Libya to Nigeria and around the Atlantic coast), was called Mauretania. The word Mauretania was interchangeable with all the names of what is now Africa: 'Ethiopia', 'Kemet', 'Netdjer', 'Sudan', 'Libya', 'Cush', 'Guinea' and the now defunct 'Negroland'.

Since the 11th century, the heraldic term Maure refers to the symbol of an African head, or more specifically any blackened image of an African, or a part of an African, or an item associated with or representing Africans.
In the 18th century English usage of the term Moor began to refer specifically to African Muslims, but especially to any person who speaks one of the Hassaniya dialects. This language, in its purest form, draws heavily from the original Yemeni Arabic spoken by the Bani Hassan tribe, which invaded northwest Africa during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Corsica's ancient Coat-of-Arms bearing distinctly female Maure
The Maure was used in Corsica beginning in 1281, and later during the struggle for independence, by both sides, beginning in 1736. The Corsican Maure was female.
General Paoli ordered the chain removed from the Maure in 1760, and a few years later had the blindfold on the coat-of-arms morphed into a headband because 'Corsicans want to see things in a clear way...'. However, the blindfold remained on the Corsican currency.
The current Corsican flag, called the "Bandera testa Mora" has a regular knot at the back of the head. The "Mora" is used out of respect for Corsica's most popular historic figure, General Pascuale Paoli, who led the struggle for independence [1755 to 1769], and who wrote the egalitarian Constitution which insipired Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Jefferson.
From 1281 to 1387 the Maure was used on the seals of the kings of Aragon. The white ground Maure (sans Adinkra) was also the original flag of the Africans during the successful slave revolt in Haiti (San Domingo) in 1799 AD.
'St.Erasm and St.Maurice' by Matthias Grunewald (b. 1470/80, d. 1528)
In medieval Europe the Maure imagery represented the Sudanese command of the German armies of the Holy Roman Empire in the 12th century. These African officers defended Swedes during the Scandinavian rebellion against Germany. Several settlements in Europe - including St. Moritz - are named after these Africans. The white flag with the black profile became the flag of several separate Orders named for of St. Maurice, that sprung up all over Europe in the 12th century. However, the name Maurice was generic and refers to many different and unrelated black soldiers in medieval European history.
In Roman times the Theban Legion was led by yet another Maurice, the warrior saint, and Primicerius (commander) of Roman troops from Thebes in Egypt. The Theban Legion was sent to suppress a revolt of the Bagandae in Agaunum in Gaul (St-Maurice en Valais) in the 3rd century. That Maurice ordered his soldiers not to participate in pagan rites. They were punished by the Emperor Maximian Herculeus first by decimation and finally by the wholesale massacre of the Theban Legion. Maurice and his fellow officers were executed in A.D. 287. Some depictions of that St. Maurice rightly portray him as black and show red flags, sometimes with a black stripe.
In heraldic tradition that has grown out of this rich past, the Moor's Head refers to "a black's head, generally in profile, and frequently banded". There are various kinds of medieval descriptions of the Maure that include "Argent, three moor's heads couped at the shoulders proper filleted or and gules (1732-35), or, in referance to a Blackmore blazon, "on a fesse between three Moor's heads erased sable as many crescents argent"; "...a blackamoor's head couped sable"; "a cross gules between four blackamoor's heads affrontee, couped at the shoulders proper, wreathed about the temples gold (1633); "Per fesse argent and sable, a pale counterchanged three negro's heads proper".
Even long before the Crusades, on April 30 in 711, at the invitation of the sons of the late Visigoth King Wittiza, the Umayyad General Tarikh ibn Ziyad (el Moro) led 7000 troops into what was to became Spain and Portugal. His troops consisted of 300 Arabs and 6,700 native Africans. Ibn Husayn (ca. 950) recorded that these troops were "Sudanese", the Arabic word for Black people. The banner of the Maure, the negro head blindfolded on a white background became associated with Tarik's African armies.
Tarik's flag was the white flag of the Umayyad Dynasty (661-750). The Umayyads took white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning. The Visigoth usurper, Roderic, was defeated by the Africans on 19th July 711 at the battle of Guadalete, near Medina Sidonia. Roderic's fall ended Visigoth rule over what the Africans then called Spania (from the Amazigh word for Rabbits), or Al Andalus, and began 800 years of African and Arab control over much of southern and western Europe, but especially over Grenada in Southern Spain.
Al Hambra, Granada's citadel in the Sierra Nevada, Andalucia - Spain
After the fall of the Umayyads in Damascas, the Africans in Spain, known as the Moro were cut off and came under threat from successive invasions. However, the Moro retained the white flag and it came to be associated with negro troops specifically, whereas the Saracen Arab invaders who followed them into Spain used the red flag of the Khawarij Republican followers of Caliph Uthman III. As pressure from the Reyes Católicos (the Christian Reconquistadors) increased over the centuries, African states in Spain mutated and fell and rose many times. The most stable and longest lived African state in Spain was Grenada, with the magnificent Nasridin dynasty citadel of Al Hambra as its capitol. Al Hambra surrendered to the Reyes Católicos at dawn on January 2, 1492. Spain and Portugal followed this action with the conquest of parts of Africa, the destruction of African communities in Europe and the invasion of the Americas. Lisbon's black population, that out-numbered Europeans in 1550, was devasted by the plagues of the times. The last free blacks in Spain were expelled on April 6, 1609.
The last African flag of Grenada consisted of heraldic "Argent, a pomegranate gules leafed vert" (ie., an all-white flag, with a centred red pomegranate flower with green petals). It is unclear what the symbolic significance of the pomegranate bloom was to blacks in Spain. What is notable, however, is that the Pomegranate gave its name to Granada, as well as to the Hand Grenade which came into use in the 15th century. Moreover, the bloom has the colors Green, Yellow, Red, which coincidentally are the Pan-African colors. Perhaps most cryptic of all is the ancient saying "There is nothing in the world like the pain of being blind in Granada," probably less a reference to the blindfolded Maure and more about the beauty of perhaps the most beautiful place in Europe. Al Hambra is still only second to the Vatican in tourist visitors.
The escutcheons (coat of arms) of the blackamoor proliferated in both private and civic European Orders throughout the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. Heraldic descriptions such as "Argent, three blackamoors' heads couped sable, capped or, fretty gules" on coats of arms became common shortly after 1096.
Even today, Sardinia's coat of arms bears four African heads each displayed in one of the four quarters created by the cross on the white shield. The traditional explanation is they represent four Moorish emirs of 11th century Spain. (N.B. Africans settled Sardinia and founded settlements around the gulf of Cagliari as early as 6000 BC, and founded the Nuragic civilization which bares a remarkable similarity to ancient Zimbabwe).

Other sources of inspiration for the AUF Maure include celebrated Africans in ancient world history & mythology, including the Magi, the Arthurian knights Pallamedes (who wore two swords on account of his being ambidextrous), and Moren (whose skin is described as being remarkably black and who taught chivalry to the other knights). Others include Ogham, the black war leader of the Celts, and Prester John, the Christian King of Ethiopia (Africa), and Cepheus the father of Andromeda. In Nubian Twilight Alex Keating shows that popular European stories including Hans and Gretel, and Cinderella were taught to Europeans by Sudanese soldiers serving in Germany around the time of the Crusades. Cinderella especially means black skin...and may have originally simply referred to a real black girl (or several of them in similar situations). The representations of Africans among the ancient African culture, and in cultures of the world, is the inspiration for the AUF emblem.
The fall of the Kushites, the Phoenicians, the conquest of Egypt, the Rise of the Romans, the advent of Asian slave trade in African persons, and consolidation of Reconquistador attitudes in 17th century Europe, all heralded a nasty turn in the treatment of Africans in world culture. Shakespeare's insightful Aaron in Titus Andronicus, and the ill-fated Othello reflect the crises and despondency that gripped human society as African civilization succumbed under the persistent attack by Europe and Asia.
Another Medieval Maurice: 1250 AD European Statue of African Knight
As late as the 19th century major European states were still using Black heads on their armorials. The French added the Maure to the fleur-de-lis but removed the blindfold. At first, the French government gave to the new department of Corsica, arms where the Moor's Head was side by side with the fleur-de-lis and with a motto: The Law, the King. But from 1792, this motto disappeared although the Moor's Head and the fleur-de-lis still remained. When Paoli formed the Anglo-Corsican kingdom, the Moor's head which was associated to the arms of the king of England, became again, from 1794 to 1796, the official emblem of Corsica."

U Moru has powerful saddening symbolism as well. It encapsulates in a single image the suffering of Africans. The number of interpretations in this regard are endless. Like the Clenched-Black-Fist, or the Chained-Black-Hand, both important African Empowerment emblems, U Moru's blinded and bound face tells eloquently the story of African survival in the face of overwhelming historic aggression and oppression. The bound face of an African is also symbolic of our oppression, or the African Holocausts perpetated against us on account of our Africanness and our appearance, and we must not forget that millions of our people continue to die and to suffer in bondage at the hands of proxy neocolonial governments and at the hands of racist anti-African regimes. It is important to bear in mind that some African-Profile armorials of Europe in the middle ages bore chains in addition to the blindfold. This was especially true of the maps of the time. Although there are no references that point to the existence of official standards with a gagfold covering the mouth rather than the eyes, they do appear from time to time and signify African silence, or more specifically the suppression of African expression.
Origin of the Moor's head
The Aragonese hypothesis
The origin of the Moor's head has been the subject of several legends and speculations. In February 1995, Jerôme Potentini gave a lecture at the Corsican Academy (Accademia Corsa), entitled Quelques idées sur l'origine du drapeau corse (Some ideas on the origin of the Corsican flag). The text of the lecture (in French) is available on the website of the Corsican Academy.
To my knowledge, this text is the best available report on the Moor's head. The author quotes his sources and makes a clear distinction between evidence, interpretation and legend. I am summarizing below the most relevant parts of the lecture. I have rearranged some parts of the lecture, for the sake of clarity.
Heraldical meaning of the Moor's head
The Moor's head is often used as a canting coat of arms by families whose name is based on the roots Maure or More. This is the case not only in Corsica, but also in continental France, Flanders, Augsburg, and Switzerland. According to Gheusi, the Moor's head used on such arms is mostly shown in profile and looking towards dexter (that is towards viewer's left). Its blazoning is the following:
tête de nègre de sable, naturellement animée et tortillée d'argent
In this description, animée (animated) means that the eyes are white and clearly visible. The heraldist Paillot gave a similar blazoning, which he illustrated with eight blasons showing the Moor's head. In all of Paillot's blasons, the head belongs to a black man (nègre, but without any pejorative connotation) with thick lips, a flat nose and freezy hair. This description fits the traditional description of Moorish slaves captured and traded by Christians, or of Moors who occupied for a long time Spain, the south of Portugal, parts of the Mediterranean shore of France and several Corsican villages. In the latter cases, the so-called Moors were not black Africans but Arabs or Islamized natives from Maghreb.
Meaning of the headband
Berthelot and Ceccaldi, quoting the historian Carpacino, believe the headband was a royal symbol. Therefore, the Moor would be a defeated Moorish chief. However, Antonetti points out that Carpacino mentioned the headband as a royal symbol in the Hellenic world only. The heraldist Paillot mentioned a tortil, that is a twisted ribbon, and not a headband. The tortil is tied behind the neck where it constitutes two small pieces. The tortil is placed either on the eyes or the forehead.
Pearls and ear pendants
In the arms dated XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries, the Moor's head is consistently shown with pearl necklaces and ear pendants. Therefore this Moor was indeed a Moorish woman, most probably a slave. These female representations might have been inspired by the trade of Moorish slaves, which was ruled during the Renaissance by Genoa, then ruler in Corsica.
Legends (among others)
A Corsican cut the head of a Sarracen chief he had identified by its white headband. In order to preserve the head as a trophy, he wrapped it into a piece of white fabric. Since he could not preserve the head too long, he decided to draw it on a white piece of fabric. This legend was reported by Nimou in his book Choses de Corse (1936).
Corsairs abducted the fiancée of a young Corsican from Aleria (a city located on the eastern coastal plain) and sold her to the King of Aragon. The Corsican set free his fiancée and killed the lieutenant sent after him by the king. He exhibited the lieutenant's head as a trophy all over the island.

Origin of the Moor's head
In 1297, pope Boniface VIII (1235-1303) vested the king of Aragon with powers on the kingdoms of Sardinia and Corsica. The Moor's head was reported on the Aragonese arms (four Moor's heads around a red cross) for the first time in 1281. These arms were used until 1387, when king Jaume I restored the former arms of Aragon. The kings of Aragon were not really interested in Corsica, and there is no evidence they imported their arms to Corsica. They occupied Sardinia, however, which explains the Moor's head in the arms of Cagliari, the capital city of Sardinia, as proved by parchments kept in the municipal archives of Cagliari. It is often said, without solid evidence, that the king of Aragon adopted the Moor's head after the battle of Alcoras or Alarcos (1046) during which king Peter I had defeated four Moorish kings. The only solid conclusion which can be drawn is that the Moor's head is not of Corsican origin but was probably imported by the kings of Aragon, although it is not attested before the beginnning ot the XIVth century.
The Moor's head in Corsica from XIIIth to XVIth century
In 1376, Giovanni della Grossa wrote that Arrigo della Rocca, the leader of the Corsican pro-Aragonese party, had placed on his banner a griffin surmonted with the arms of Aragon. However, Grossa did not describe explicitely these arms. Vincentello d'Istria, another pro-Aragonese leader, who became in 1418 the first native vice-roy of Corsica, was also said to bear the arms of Aragon, again not described explicitely. Sampiero, Colonel of the Corsican regiment in the service of the king of France (1547), was reported to have used a black flag with a white cross and a Moor's head in the center. The Moor's head was allegedly added to the regiment flag to distinguish it from the flag used by Piemontese bands. The military historian Poli, however, believes that the report was erroneous and that the Moor's head had been added by modern authors. He said that France would have not tolerated mercenaries using an Aragonese symbol. Corsico-Sardinian mercenaries, however, might have used banners with the Moor's head. Such banners are shown on several paintings and frescos, carried by Corsican and Sardinian regiments or mercenaries in the service of the pope or Italian republics. A painting, dated before 1466, by Piero della Francesca (1416-1492) in the St. Francis' church in Arezzo, is the best example of these representations. Corsicans and Sardinians served indistinctively in the same regiments, which might have used the arms of Cagliari on their banner. The conclusion for the XIII-XVIth century period is that Corsican chiefs might have used the Moor's head as their banner, although this was not the official emblem of Corsica.
The Moor's head in Corsica from XVIth to XVIIIth century
In 1573, the Italian geographer Mainaldo Galerati "reestablished" the Moor's head as the emblem of Corsica in his atlas showing the possessions of king Philip II of Spain and their respective arms. The atlas published in 1662 by the Dutch Johan Blaeu popularized the Moor's head. Blaeu's atlas was translated in Latin as Atlas major between 1662 and 1665. Corsica was represented there by a golden shiled with a tortil-wearing Moor's head and a Triton armed with a trident.
Using Blaeu's atlas, Seutter published in 1731 in Augsburg a map of Corsica decorated with a Moor's head. On 12 March 1736, the adventurer Theodor von Neuhoff (1694-1756) landed in Aleria, where he was proclaimed king of Corsica. He used a white flag with a Moor's head with a headband on the eyes. Neuhoff might have seen Seutter's map in Augsburg where he had been stationed. A coin minted at that time in Corsica shows a head, which was interpreted either as the Moor's head or Neuhoff's head. Neuhoff left Corsica after six months, but his story was widely popularized in Europa. This might be the reason why the Moor's head has been considered as the official symbol of Corsica since then.
Pascuale Paoli and the Moor's head
In a letter dated 23 June 1760 from Rivarola, Pascuale Paoli (1725-1807) proposed a flag for Corsica. The reverse should have been charged with a picture of St. Dévote and the obverse should have been charged with the Moor's head as represented on the maps at that time. During the Consulta of Vescovato, on 24 May 1761, it was decided to mint coins with the arms of the kingdom of Corsica. A Moor's head with a tortil on the forehead was placed on a shield, surmonted with a royal crown with fleur-de-lys, itself surmonted with a globe and a cross. The shield was flanked by two marine deities. These arms were placed, with some variation, on the Corsican flags. Paoli created a Corsican navy, whose ensign was a Moor's head on a white field without any secondary attribute. As said above, the tortil was placed on the Moor's forehead instead of eyes. Paoli was reported to have said: "The Corsicans want to see well, liberty shall follow the torch of philosophy and we shall not be scared by the light." According to Ambrogia Rossi, Paoli also said: "Now the placement of the royal headband shall indicate our dignity and no longer our shame as our enemies would prefer to see it." However, Genoese archives prove that flags with the headband on the Moor's forehead already existed in 1731. Paoli seems to have indeed officialized the placement of the headband on the Moor's forehead. After the battle of Ponte-Novu (1769) and Paoli's exile to England, France kept the Moor's head but suppressed the headband and added fleurs-de-lys. The French Revolution kept the Moor's head, but suppressed the fleurs-de-lys. Between 1794 and 1796, Paoli attempted to create an Anglo-Corsican kingdom. Its official emblem associated the Moor's head and the Royal arms of England.
Ivan Sache, 4 August 2002
Another historical hypothesis related to Aragon was reported by the Corsica Guide. It says that the Moor's head appeared on the Corsican flag in the XVIth century, following the drawing of a map of the possessions of Philip II, King of Spain, by an Italian geographer. Corsica had then no official emblem, and the geographer used the Moor's head because of the proximity to Sardinia, whose flag bears four Moor's heads.
Ivan Sache, 31 March 2000

St. Maurice as the Moor
The Jesuit trained Mario de Valdes y Cocom wrote an essay about St. Maurice and the imagery of the Moor's head in a special article for PBS' Frontline. The essay is entitled: Sigillum Secretum (Secret Seal) - On the image of the Blackamoor in European Heraldry (a preliminary proposal for an iconographical study).
The parts relevant to the Moor's head on flags say:
The four Moor's head shown on the flag of Sardinia are traditionally associated to the four Moorish emirs which were defeated by a king of Aragon in the XIth century. As a corollary, the Black figure became a symbol of evil.
Modern heraldits suspect that the Moor's head is, however, the very opposite of a negative symbol. The Moor's head could have referred to St. Maurice, the black patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire from the beginning of the Xth century. Maurice has been portrayed as black since the XIIth century.
Valdes writes: 'The insignia of the black head, in a great many instances, was probably meant to represent this soldier saint since a majority of the arms awarded were knightly or military. With 6,666 of his African compatriots, St. Maurice had chosen martyrdom rather than deny his allegiance to his Lord and Saviour, thereby creating for the Christian world an image of the Church Militant that was as impressive numerically as it was colourwise. Here, no doubt, is a major reason why St. Maurice would become the champion of the old Roman church and an opposition symbol to the growing influence of Luther and Calvin. The fact that he was of the same race as the Ethiopian baptized by St. Philip in Acts of the Apostles was undoubtedly an important element to his significance as well. Since this figure from the New Testament was read as a personification of the Gentile world in its entirety, the complexion of St. Maurice and his Theban Legion (the number of which signified an infinite contingent) was also understood as a representation of the Church's universality - a dogmatic ideal no longer tolerated by the Reformation's nationalism.
Furthermore, it cannot be coincidental that the most powerful of the German princes to remain within the Catholic fold, the archbishop Albrecht von Brandenburg, not only dedicated practically all the major institutions under his jurisdiction to St. Maurice but in what is today one of the most important paintings of the Renaissance, had himself portrayed in Sacred Conversation with him.
Even more blatant was the action taken by Emanual Philibert, Duke of Savoy. In 1572 he organized the order of St. Maurice. The papal promulgation published at its institution declared quite unequivocally that the sole purpose for this knighthood was to combat of the Reformation. The order still exists although it has now combined with the Order of St. Lazarus. The white trefoiled cross of the combined order belongs to the former. The particular symbol of St. Maurice's blackness that must have most antagonized the Protestant faction, however, was the one regarding the mystery of papal authority. Scholars have been able to show, for example, that in the theological debates of this period, even the abstract adjectives, black and white, were defiantly acknowledged by apologists of both stripes to represent the Church and the Reformers respectively."
Ivan Sache, 18 Febuary 2001

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

일본은 또 다른 백제

이 름         병갤 조회수180
제 목         일본은 또 다른 백제

역갤 일빠들 보면 흔히 고대사 부분에서 임나일본부설을 인정하고 백제를 일본의 속국이라 보며 그 태자를 인질로 삼아갔다느니 어쩌니 하는 개소리를 잘 늘어 놓는데, 한국 학자든 일본 학자든 고대 백제와 일본관계에 대해 명확하게 답을 내는 공동 여론이 없으므로 시시하지만 대부분의 일본학자들도 인정하는 일본의 기원은 한반도 도래인이 분명하다.

일빠들이 일본 기원에 대해 모르고 있을 것 같아 몇 자 적어 준다면,

고대 일본은 원래 죠몬인이라는 남방계 원시부족으로 이루어진 집단이 살고 있었지.
이 죠몬인들은 그야말로 원시적인 방법인 수렵과 채집을 통해 사회를 꾸려 살고 있었는데

기원 전후를 기점으로 (0년 전 후) 한반도에서 일본으로 건너온 도래인들이 터를 잡기 시작.
이들은 '야요이' 인으로 죠몬인과 유전학적으로 다른 계통의 민족임(이건 일본학자들도 인정한 사실)

그리고 야요이 인들은 현재 규슈지방을 중심으로 터를 잡기 시작했고 벼농사가 시작됨.
벼농사의 시작은 농경혁명과 결부되는 문명의 큰 시발점이 되는데 현재 일본에서 가장 오래된 벼농사 지역이 규슈에 있음
또한 그와 관련된 농업문명지도 규슈가 가장 오래 됌(일본 교과서에 나와 있음)

이후 야요이 인은 수차례에 걸쳐 증폭되는데 도래인의 증가와 조몬인들이 야요이 인에게 흡수복속되는 결과임.

이렇게 일본열도는 한반도에서 건너간 수많은 도래인들에 의해 채워지게 된다.

여기서 중요한 건 당시 일본은 국가라는 개념자체가 없었음. 그냥 원시인들이 살고 있던 무법지대. 반면 한반도는 이미 고구려, 백제, 신라, 가야의 4국 체제가 완비되어 고대국가가 발생하고 영토확장에 힘을 쏟고 있는 상태였지. 당시 한반도에 있던 사람들은 일본을 그저 한반도에서 뱃길로 가면 며칠만에 도달할 수 있는 가까운 거리에 있는 또 다른 섬이라고 생각 했을 것이다.

고구려, 백제는 부여에서 내려온 혈통이라는 건 누구나 알고 있을 터. 가야 또한 그렇다. (역사스페셜 가야고분의 비밀 을 보면 정확히 나옴)
신라는 그 기원이 북방계가 연합하였지만 토속민이 더 우세하였다는 이야기도 있어 완전 부여계라 보긴 힘듬.
그러나 고, 백, 가야는 확실히 그 지배계층이 부여계의 북방민족인데 '천손신화사상'을 보면 알 수 있음.

여하튼 초창기 일본열도에는 가야인들이 많이 이주하였고 이어서 신라인과 백제인도 이주를 하였다.
먼저 자리를 잡은 가야인들은 현재의 '북규슈' 지방에 터를 잡고 문명을 일으키기 시작했고 이어서 도래한 신라인들에 의해 '북규슈' 지방을 신라 도래인들에게 빼앗이고 '남규슈' 로 이사를 해 간다. 신라도래인들이 올 때 즘 백제 도래인들도 건너오기 시작했지만 이미 '북규슈' 에 터를 잡은 신라도래인과의 마찰을 피해 보다 일본 내륙으로 들어가 현재의 '나라' 지방 쪽으로 건너간다.

이렇게 당시 일본열도는 한반도 도래인들이 영토분할을 하며 계속 분쟁하고 있었던 것. 이들은 해외식민지니 뭐니 하는 느낌보다 당시 일본이라는 국가 자체가 없었기 때문에 그냥 바다 건너에 있는 땅을 차지했다 정도로 인식되었을 것이다. 그냥 지방정권이라고 보면 되는 느낌. 이러한 일본열도의 백제, 신라, 가야의 지방정권과 본국은 긴밀한 관계를 유지하였다.

하나의 일화를 들자면,

당시 백제가 신라를 공격하기 위해 일본에 있는 백제의 분국 '야마토' 에 병력 요청을 하였는데 이를 알아차린 신라가 현재 북규슈 지방에 있는 도래인 세력과 결탁하여, 백제의 분국군이 본국으로 지원오는 것을 막게 한다. 일본에서 한반도로 오려면 규슈를 꼭 거쳐야 하므로 현재 나라현 부근에 있던 백제계 세력이 신라와 결탁한 규슈세력에 의해 저지되자, 일본열도의 백제계 세력들이 본국 백제로 향하기 전에 신라결탁 세력을 없애기 위해 규슈를 정벌해 버린다. 당시 백제와 가야는 친밀한 관계여서 백제계 세력에 가야인들도 대거 포함되어 있었음.

이에 신라는 일본열도의 신라 지원 분국이 멸망하자 바로 가야를 공격하는데 이 때 진흥왕이 대가야를 쳐서 아예 가야를 멸망시켜 버림.
일본에서 신라 분국의 멸망이, 한반도 가야 본국의 멸망이라는 결과를 초래함. 이렇게 가야가 멸망되자 가야인들은 일본으로 건너가는데 이 때 가야계 세력들이 있는 남규슈와 친밀한 백제계 세력이 있는 나라 쪽으로 건너감. 그래서 역사적으로 남규슈에는 반한파, 정한론자들이 꽤 많음. 당시 가야인들이 신라에 대한 분노를 가지고 도망갔을 것임.

이제 일본열도에 남은 건 백제세력과 가야세력이 대다수. 즉 신라는 일본열도의 세력을 포기하는 대가로 한반도 영토 확장을 얻은 셈임.

백제와 일본은 누가 속국이니 하는 것 보다, 일본 자체가 당시 미개척지 불모지의 땅이었으므로 일본에서 큰 세력을 떨치던 백제인들이 건설한 분국 정도의 개념임. 어떤 일본 학자 주장에 따르면 백제가 멸망할 당시 이미 백제의 주요 지배세력은 일본에 건너와 있었고 그렇기 때문에 백제가 쉽게 멸망한 것이라고도 함.

백제가 멸망(660년)한 후 백제부흥운동이 일어나는데 이 때 일본에서 엄청난 수의 대군을 백제를 위해 파견해 줌. 이로 인해 나당연합군과 제왜연합군이 백촌강에서 전투를 하는데(664년) 이 빠가같은 일본군이 서해의 밀물 썰물을 몰라서 그냥 거슬러 올라오다가 갯벌에 배가 파묻혀 당나라 군에게 그냥 몰살 되었다고 함. 그 지원병을 기다리던 백제부흥세력들은 지원군이 도착하지 않자 결국 혼자 싸우다가 패배.

이로 인해 백제가 완전히 멸망하고 이 때 남은 일본잔병이 불렀다는 노래가 전해지는데 가사가 의미심장함.

아아 부모의 땅을 잃었으니 언제 다시 이 땅으로 오겠는가. 뭐 이런 내용임

당시까지도 일본조정은 백제를 본국으로 생각하고 있었는데 본국이 멸망했으니 개탄할 수 밖에.
그리고 일본분국이 갈 수록 강해진다고 했는데 일본은 1590년 풍신수길이 전국통일 하기 전까지 지금의 통일 국가 모습이 아님.
더군다나 일본은 산지가 80% 지역과 지역이 폐쇄적이로 그 길이 험악하여 고립되는 경우도 많음.
또 조선시대까지 계속 왜구들이 득실거리는데 일본은 전통적으로 자급자족이 되지 않는 땅이였음.
일본 땅이 좋아서 금방 백제를 능가했을 것이라는 추측은 말이 안 되는 것.

여하튼 그 후 670년 최초로 '일본' 이라는 국호가 만들어지고 나라의 기틀이 다져지는데
이게 백제인들이 본국을 포기하고 일본이라는 세로운 백제를 열도에 건너가 세운 것이라 봐도 됨.
모든 사람이 백제인은 아니겠지만 적어도 지배층들은 백제계 사람들이 굉장히 많을 것임.


IP Address : 183.108.***.***
2012-12-16 00:16:45

전체댓글수18| 욕설이나 비방 댓글은 누군가에게 큰 상처로 남을 수 있습니다.
지랄. 그래서 어쩌라고|115.139.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:17    
좀 판타지 성이 짙은데..?|123.142.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:19    
판타지 성이 짙겠다고 볼 수 있겠지만 내 생각이 아니라 책에서 읽고 생각나는 것들을 적어 본 것임. 김용운 이라는 사람이 쓴 역사로 배우는 일본어 라는 책에 나와 있음. 재일교포인데 일본어랑 한국어랑 비슷해서 연구하다가 알게되었다는 것임.|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:22    
사실 이미 양심있는 일본학자들은 일본천황가가 백제에 의해 시작되었고, 일본문명이 한반도에서 많은 영향을 받은 것이라는 건 누구나 알고 있는 사실. 또 일본서기를 보면 신라를 굉장히 증오하는 내용이 많은데 이것도 백제계인들이 죄다 고쳐놓은 것이라는 주장도 많음. 헤이세이 현 일왕은 자신의 몸에 무령왕의 피가 흐른다고 말 한 적이 있고, 그 아버지는 쇼와일왕도 당신네들(한반도인) 덕분에 일본이 있다며 은인이라고 이야기 한 적도 있음. 다만 여전히 일본에 있는 국수주의자들 극우익들이 미쳐날뛰는 것 때문에 문제가 되는거지. 어찌보면 이런 극우익 세력들이 백제계 후손들이라 볼 수도 있음. 대표적으로 고이즈미 전 총리가 백제계 일본인임.|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:25    
평야 하나로 조쎈 관광때리는 도쿄지역을 보고 말해라|211.177.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:29    
도쿄지역 평야 하나가 조센 전체의 평야보다 넓은데다 기후도 부산급 이라 농사가 넘사벽이였다. 물론 정권이 통일된건 언젠지 모르겠다만... 그리고 인질인지 아니면 분국의 개념인지 햇깔린긴 해... 하지만 본토보다 일본이 풍요롭고 더 강했다는 사실로 아는데?|211.177.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:30    
지금이야 일본이 비옥한 땅을 가지고 농업을 잘 꾸려 나갔겠지만 670년 일본이라는 최초국가가 성립될 때만 해도 관동지방은 미개척지다. 이 때 관동지방을 개척한 사람들이 고구려계와 신라계도래인들이라고 함. 그러나 당시 백제는 전라도 평야를 누리고 있었으니 게임이 안 되지. 일본은 중앙집권 뭐 이런게 거의 전무한 역사를 가졌음. 일왕은 그냥두고 막무라는 놈들이 땅갈라서 다스리기나 했으니 뭐 그런게 있겠음? 또 대마도는 거의 반독자적인 세력으로 대다수 왜구가 그 놈들임.|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:33    
레전드릨 [kav**(고정닉) : 갤로그로 이동합니다.]    
읽어보니 맞는말같기도하네
        2012.12.16 00:33    
상식적으로 생각해봐라. 왜구가 왜 한반도 남해안 침략해서 약탈해가겠냐? 1. 본성이 쓰래기다 / 2. 쳐먹을 것이 없다. 2번 아니겠음? 그럼 신라, 고려, 조선 시대에서 조선인들이 일본으로 노략질하러 간 기록있음? 일본서기에도 없다. 왜 안 갔겠냐? 안 가도 자체적으로 해결되니까 안 간거여.|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:35    
왜놈들은 이러한 사실도 인정 안한다. 왜놈들이 믿고 싶어하는 도래인은 반도인이 아니라 중국 장강유역의 오월인이다.|211.109.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:36    
댓글 10개 돌파!!
어떻게든 지들이 혐오하는 죠센징이 지네 조상이라는걸 인정하고 싶지 않겠지. 그래서 자포니카 품종 드립치면서 장강 오월인 후손설이 대세. 하지만 o2b는 부계 유전자때문에 저러한 똥고집도 맘대로 못한다는 것이 함정 ㅋ|211.109.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:38    
그래서 나온게 된 왜놈 논리가 고대 한국인과 현대 한국인은 아무 상관없다는 드립. ㅋㅋㅋㅋ|211.109.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:40    
맞음. 얼마전 일본 언론에도 발표됐지. 현재 일본인과 한국인은 유전학적으로 거의 동일 하다고. 그랬더니 2ch같은 사이트 반응이 참 일본스러웠음. 그전까지만해도 지들이 우월하다고 까더니 금새 '그게 어쨌다는거지' '지금은 과거와 현재는 다른데?' 와 같이 현실인정 자기합리화. 역시 뇌에 똥든 열도인들은 끝까지 비열하기 짝이 없어. 현실에선 아닥하면서 인터넷으로 불펌이나 해서 글을 써대지.|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:47    
대개 이런 류의 책 쓰는 재일들의 사상은 국뽕과 매우 흡사하지 ㅋ 내용은 그럴듯하지만 그래서 별로 아니 전혀 신뢰가 안간다 ㅋ|125.130.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:50    
여기 일뽕 병신들도 2ch애들하고 똑같은 종자들.|211.109.***.***
        2012.12.16 00:56    
국뽕 병신들도 답이 없는 종자들인건 마찬가지 ㅋ|125.130.***.***
        2012.12.16 01:02    
일빠들이 더 병신이지. 한국에서 한국어 쓰면서 일빠를 하다니. 일본으로 건너가서 쓰나미에 떠내려 갈 것이지. 꼴에 살고 싶다고 한반도에 거주하기는 ^^|183.108.***.***
        2012.12.16 01:05    
일본에서 일본인처럼 일본어에 일본 이름까지 쓰면서 국뽕짓하는 박쥐 재일국뽕상병신들에 비하면 일빠들은 양반이지^^|125.130.***.***
        2012.12.16 01:20    

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

The name berber came after the fall of Roman Empire.

The name Berber appeared for the first time after the end of the Roman Empire.[3] The use of the term Berber spread in the period following the arrival of the Vandals during their major invasions. A history by a Roman consul in Africa made the first reference of the term "barbarian" to describe Numidia. Muslim historians, some time after, also mentioned the Berbers.[4] The English term was introduced in the 19th century, replacing the earlier Barbary, a loan from Arabic. Its ultimate etymological identity with barbarian is uncertain, but the Arabic word has clearly been treated as identical with Latin barbaria, Byzantine Greek βαρβαρία "land of barbarians" since the Middle Ages.
For the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo[5] the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg which is the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in the Targoum. According to Leo Africanus, Amazigh meant "free men", though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning "free" in modern Berber languages. It also has a cognate in the Tuareg word "amajegh", meaning "noble".[6][7] This term is common in Morocco, especially among Central-Upper-North Morocco Tamazight and Central-Upper-North-South Morocco Sous Tamazight speakers in 1980,[8] but elsewhere within the Berber homeland a local, more particular term, such as Kabyle or Chaoui, is more often used instead in Algeria.[9]
The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater "Libya" (North Africa) in the areas where Berbers were later found. Later tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh. The Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field. Scholars believe it would be the same tribe called a few centuries after in Greek Mazyes by Hektaios and Maxyes by Herodotus, while it was called after that the "Mazaces" and "Mazax" in Latin sources, and related to the later Massylii and Masaesyli. All those names are similar and perhaps foreign renditions to the name used by the Berbers in general for themselves, Imazighen.

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