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Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Celt came from iberia(Spain and Portugal)

"Modern scholarship, however, has clearly proven that Celtic presence and influences were most substantial in Iberia (with perhaps the highest settlement saturation in Western Europe), particularly in the western and northern regions.

The historical Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age (1200 BC-400 AD) in Central Europe (Hallstatt period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had expanded over a wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far north as Scotland.[2]
The Celtic languages form a branch of the larger Indo-European family. By the time speakers of Celtic languages enter history around 400 BC (Brennus's attack on Rome in 387 BC), they were already split into several language groups, and spread over much of Central Europe, the Iberian peninsula, Ireland and Britain."

Alberto J. Lorrio, Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero (2005). "The Celts in Iberia: An Overview". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies 6: 167–254.


" It is now believed that the ancient Celts were by a very large majority R1b people. Many subclades of R1b divide the various geographic groups of Celts. 2500 years ago, British and Irish Celts belonged mostly to the subclade R1b-L21. Celts from Iberia and south-west Gaul were R1b-M167, while the other Gauls, from central France to southern Germany to northern Italy, belonged to R1b-U152. Further subgroups exist for all these clades (see Origins of European haplogroups).

Celtic people split in several groups : the Brythonic went to Britain and Ireland, the Gaulish to France, the Iberian to Spain and Portugal, and the Alpine remained around Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany, Eastern France and Belgium. The Iberian and Gaulish groups mixed with I2b, I2a and E people, the Alpine with I2b and E, and the Brythonic just with I2b people. "


"Celts crossed the Pyrenees into Spain in two major migrations in the ninth and the seventh centuries B.C. The Celts settled for the most part north of the Rio Duero and the Rio Ebro, where they mixed with the Iberians to form groups called Celtiberians. The Celtiberians were farmers and herders who also excelled in metalworking crafts, which the Celts had brought from their Danubian homeland by way of Italy and southern France. Celtic influence dominated Celtiberian culture. The Celtiberians appear to have had no social or political organization larger than their matriarchal, collective, and independent clans. "


"It seems that what we are forgetting here is that Celtic culture may not have originated in south-central Europe at all. Rather, according to globally acclaimed archaeologists, Barry Cunliffe and John Koch, among others, Celticity spread from southwest Spain and Portugal - the starting point region. There is compelling archaeological and linguistic evidence suggesting that the Tartessians were the original Celts. A very substantial ongoing study led by Koch, with participants from many fields, could ultimately prove that there is no Central European Celtic origin. Quite possibly, Celticity spread from the southwest to the east and north."


Then , how do you explain the massive presence of haplotype R-M167 in Iberia, which is of Celtic origin.
Or the presence of M-269 , the presence of L1/S26, the S127 ,
How do you explain the Atlantic Modal Haplotype :
The AMH is the most frequently occurring haplotype amongst human males in Atlantic Europe. It is characterised by the following marker alleles:

* DYS388 12
* DYS390 24
* DYS391 11
* DYS392 13
* DYS393 13
* DYS394 14 (also known as DYS19)

A common haplotype within R1b is sometimes called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, or haplotype 15. It reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in Great Britain and Ireland. In the Iberian Peninsula it reaches 70% in Portugal as a whole, more than 90% in NW Portugal and nearly 90% in Galicia (NW Spain), while the highest value is to be found among Spanish Basques. It was discovered prior to many of the SNPs now used to identify subclades of R1b and references to it can be found in some of the older literature. It corresponds most closely with subclade R1b1b2a1a

"The Celtic samples are very homogeneous—the modal haplotype [microsatellite haplotype 15 within hg 1 (haplotype 1.15)] has a frequency of 0.26 in Wales and 0.18 in Ireland--[...]. Haplotype 1.15 is also modal in the Basques and constitutes 0.41". In Galicia SNaPshot multiplexes reactions this frequency is 0.23 in the chromosomes which contains M173 (Eu18 or AMH).

Eu18 and Eu19 characterize about 50% of the European Y chromosomes.
Although they share M173, the two haplotypes show contrasting geographic distribution. The frequency of Eu18 decreases from west to east, being most frequent in Basques . This lineage includes the previously described proto-European lineage that is characterized by the 49a,f haplotype 15. In contrast, haplotype Eu19, which is derived from the M173 lineage and is distinguished by M17, is virtually absent in Western Europe. Its frequency increases eastward and reaches a maximum in Poland, Hungary, and Ukraine, where Eu18 in turn is virtually absent.

Presence of the M269 marker or R1b3 is the subclade most closely corresponding to Haplotype 15. It is by far the most common in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (66%). It is also the most comun in Galicia 63% (Galician haplogroup-frequency 0.88: cf. Basque 1.16, NW Castilian 1.00, East Andalusia 0.95, Catalonia 0.80, South Portugal 0.78, etc.), with a very low presence of the iberian haplogroup R1b3f: 0.02.

Despite AMH alleles of Ireland they seem to correspond better with the NE of Iberia, where R1b3f was a later mutation, that with the Iberian Atlantic facade and Basconia:

Irland, Huesca (Pyrenees), Valencia: DYS388 12, DYS390 24, DYS391 11, DYS392 13, DYS393 13 e DYS19 14
Basconia: DYS388 12, DYS390 24, DYS391 10, DYS392 13, DYS393 13, DYS19 14.
Galicia: DYS388 12, DYS390 23, DYS391 9, DYS392 11, DYS393 13, DYS19 14

From later Cro-Magnon remains from southern Italy it has been found that early Europeans were of the mtDNA-Haplogroup HV or pre-HV with Celts and Basques being around 60% descendant mtDNA-Haplogroup H (Welsh 59.8%, Galicians 59.2%, Basques 57.8% Piedmont 56.8%, Valencians 53.33%).

Only the Insular languages Celtic and hispanic occidental names of god epithets show evidence of a Afro-Asiatic substrate "grammar without vocabulary" influence which may have arisen in the coastal Neolithic enclaves among the then hunter-gatherer Berbers of the Maghreb:syntactic order, plurality of plurals, etc.

So HLA A2-B7-DR15 (caucasic common haplotype; cf. Glenys Thomson and Richard Single: "Biostatistical Analyses of Population Level Data for the 14th IHIWS", 2008): They were responsible for the common genetic base that one has been in Iberian and paleonorthafricans (hamitas). “The appendation of the B7-DQ6 haplotype creates the A2-B7-DQ6 haplotype. This haplotype if found often in Northern and Western Spain, Portugal and SW of Britain;also in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Germany show a significant incidence” : cf.Thomson and Richard Single, 2008.

So HLA A29-Cw16-B44-DR7-DQ2 (caucasic common haplotype; cf. Glenys Thomson and Richard Single: "Biostatistical Analyses of Population Level Data for the 14th IHIWS", 2008): The highest frequencies tend to be coastal countries along the Atlantic. The Cw16 allele is undoubtedly derived from Western Africa a substantial contribution as far north as Ireland. The high frequency of this haplotype is a marker of the old west European of the West, including a Portuguese, Basque and NW Spaniards; also it is common in Irish, English of the South and the French of the West.

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