"Modern scholarship, however, has clearly proven that Celtic presence and influences were most substantial in Iberia (with perhaps the highest settlement saturation in Western Europe), particularly in the western and northern regions.
The historical Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron
Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age (1200
BC-400 AD) in Central Europe (Hallstatt period, named for the site in
present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had
expanded over a wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the
Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far
north as Scotland.
The Celtic languages form a branch of the larger Indo-European family.
By the time speakers of Celtic languages enter history around 400 BC
(Brennus's attack on Rome in 387 BC), they were already split into
several language groups, and spread over much of Central Europe, the
Iberian peninsula, Ireland and Britain."
Alberto J. Lorrio, Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero (2005). "The Celts in Iberia:
An Overview". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies 6:
" It is now believed that the ancient Celts were by a
very large majority R1b people. Many subclades of R1b divide the
various geographic groups of Celts. 2500 years ago, British and Irish
Celts belonged mostly to the subclade R1b-L21. Celts from Iberia and
south-west Gaul were R1b-M167, while the other Gauls, from central
France to southern Germany to northern Italy, belonged to R1b-U152.
Further subgroups exist for all these clades (see Origins of European
Celtic people split in several groups : the Brythonic went to Britain
and Ireland, the Gaulish to France, the Iberian to Spain and Portugal,
and the Alpine remained around Austria, Switzerland, southern Germany,
Eastern France and Belgium. The Iberian and Gaulish groups mixed with
I2b, I2a and E people, the Alpine with I2b and E, and the Brythonic just
with I2b people. "
"Celts crossed the Pyrenees into Spain in two major
migrations in the ninth and the seventh centuries B.C. The Celts settled
for the most part north of the Rio Duero and the Rio Ebro, where they
mixed with the Iberians to form groups called Celtiberians. The
Celtiberians were farmers and herders who also excelled in metalworking
crafts, which the Celts had brought from their Danubian homeland by way
of Italy and southern France. Celtic influence dominated Celtiberian
culture. The Celtiberians appear to have had no social or political
organization larger than their matriarchal, collective, and independent
"It seems that what we are forgetting here is that Celtic culture may
not have originated in south-central Europe at all. Rather, according to
globally acclaimed archaeologists, Barry Cunliffe and John Koch, among
others, Celticity spread from southwest Spain and Portugal - the
starting point region. There is compelling archaeological and linguistic
evidence suggesting that the Tartessians were the original Celts. A
very substantial ongoing study led by Koch, with participants from many
fields, could ultimately prove that there is no Central European Celtic
origin. Quite possibly, Celticity spread from the southwest to the east
Then , how do you explain the massive presence of haplotype R-M167 in Iberia, which is of Celtic origin.
Or the presence of M-269 , the presence of L1/S26, the S127 ,
How do you explain the Atlantic Modal Haplotype :
The AMH is the most frequently occurring haplotype amongst human males
in Atlantic Europe. It is characterised by the following marker alleles:
* DYS388 12
* DYS390 24
* DYS391 11
* DYS392 13
* DYS393 13
* DYS394 14 (also known as DYS19)
A common haplotype within R1b is sometimes called the Atlantic Modal
Haplotype, or haplotype 15. It reaches the highest frequencies in the
Iberian Peninsula and in Great Britain and Ireland. In the Iberian
Peninsula it reaches 70% in Portugal as a whole, more than 90% in NW
Portugal and nearly 90% in Galicia (NW Spain), while the highest value
is to be found among Spanish Basques. It was discovered prior to many of
the SNPs now used to identify subclades of R1b and references to it can
be found in some of the older literature. It corresponds most closely
with subclade R1b1b2a1a
"The Celtic samples are very homogeneous—the modal haplotype
[microsatellite haplotype 15 within hg 1 (haplotype 1.15)] has a
frequency of 0.26 in Wales and 0.18 in Ireland--[...]. Haplotype 1.15 is
also modal in the Basques and constitutes 0.41". In Galicia SNaPshot
multiplexes reactions this frequency is 0.23 in the chromosomes which
contains M173 (Eu18 or AMH).
Eu18 and Eu19 characterize about 50% of the European Y chromosomes.
Although they share M173, the two haplotypes show contrasting geographic
distribution. The frequency of Eu18 decreases from west to east, being
most frequent in Basques . This lineage includes the previously
described proto-European lineage that is characterized by the 49a,f
haplotype 15. In contrast, haplotype Eu19, which is derived from the
M173 lineage and is distinguished by M17, is virtually absent in Western
Europe. Its frequency increases eastward and reaches a maximum in
Poland, Hungary, and Ukraine, where Eu18 in turn is virtually absent.
Presence of the M269 marker or R1b3 is the subclade most closely
corresponding to Haplotype 15. It is by far the most common in the
Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (66%). It is also the most
comun in Galicia 63% (Galician haplogroup-frequency 0.88: cf. Basque
1.16, NW Castilian 1.00, East Andalusia 0.95, Catalonia 0.80, South
Portugal 0.78, etc.), with a very low presence of the iberian haplogroup
Despite AMH alleles of Ireland they seem to correspond better with the
NE of Iberia, where R1b3f was a later mutation, that with the Iberian
Atlantic facade and Basconia:
Irland, Huesca (Pyrenees), Valencia: DYS388 12, DYS390 24, DYS391 11, DYS392 13, DYS393 13 e DYS19 14
Basconia: DYS388 12, DYS390 24, DYS391 10, DYS392 13, DYS393 13, DYS19 14.
Galicia: DYS388 12, DYS390 23, DYS391 9, DYS392 11, DYS393 13, DYS19 14
From later Cro-Magnon
remains from southern Italy it has been found that early Europeans were
of the mtDNA-Haplogroup HV or pre-HV with Celts and Basques being
around 60% descendant mtDNA-Haplogroup H (Welsh 59.8%, Galicians 59.2%,
Basques 57.8% Piedmont 56.8%, Valencians 53.33%).
Only the Insular languages Celtic and hispanic occidental names of god
epithets show evidence of a Afro-Asiatic substrate "grammar without
vocabulary" influence which may have arisen in the coastal Neolithic
enclaves among the then hunter-gatherer Berbers of the Maghreb:syntactic
order, plurality of plurals, etc.
So HLA A2-B7-DR15 (caucasic common haplotype; cf. Glenys Thomson and
Richard Single: "Biostatistical Analyses of Population Level Data for
the 14th IHIWS", 2008): They were responsible for the common genetic
base that one has been in Iberian and paleonorthafricans (hamitas). “The
appendation of the B7-DQ6 haplotype creates the A2-B7-DQ6 haplotype.
This haplotype if found often in Northern and Western Spain, Portugal
and SW of Britain;also in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Germany
show a significant incidence” : and Richard Single, 2008.
So HLA A29-Cw16-B44-DR7-DQ2 (caucasic common haplotype; cf. Glenys
Thomson and Richard Single: "Biostatistical Analyses of Population Level
Data for the 14th IHIWS", 2008): The highest frequencies tend to be
coastal countries along the Atlantic. The Cw16 allele is undoubtedly
derived from Western Africa a substantial contribution as far north as
Ireland. The high frequency of this haplotype is a marker of the old
west European of the West, including a Portuguese, Basque and NW
Spaniards; also it is common in Irish, English of the South and the
French of the West.
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