The today Turks are in small percentage descendants of Altai Turks, who were a Mongoloid looking people. Altai Mountains, the ancestral homeland of Turkic peoples, is where Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan and Russia meet and the people there is East Asian looking. And in early Turkish manuscripts, they depict themselves as Mongoloids, because the aristocracy didn't mingled with the common people some centuries.
Today Turks, as genetic studies shown, are more closely related with the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations:
Genetic history of the Turkish people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Culturally, the Turks have adopted the superior culture of the Byzantine (Anatolian) civilization, including the music style. If you heard Byzantine (Eastern Christian, Orthodox) liturgical music, you will observe that the Islamic music is an offspring of it and similarly, laical Turkish music was an offspring of laical Byzantine music. Byzantine music, which is a canonic set of chants that are sang or read at several services over a liturgical day, was wrriten before the Ottoman conquest, in fact some of the chants as are old as 4th (not 14th) century and most was written perhaps before the year 1000:
|To me, ( even though if I am unfamiliar with the sound of ancient Greek music) the sound of harp which is often portrayed on Greek drawings simply can't be anything like Central Asian instruments (that's where originally Turkish tribes came from.) And if to take in consideration that when Turks conquered Byzantium and took over Constantinople ( that's present day Istanbul in Asia Minor) they were already Islamic force, which made their culture ( music including) quite distinctively reminiscent of Arabic music.|
Most of what you know as Arab music was created (as a style) during the Ottoman rule over the Arab world:
In fact, Arab music (what is usually know as that) is mostly Turkish music, not the other way around. The pre-Ottoman Arab music was different than the today one.
Central Asian music too, is different from Turkish music:
|You need to only listen to "Sirtaki" (in connection with it) which everyone recognizes as "typical" Greek music to figure out that "Turkish" tune it is not.|
Look a dance and song of Pontian Greeks, which are Greeks from the region on southern coast of Black Sea, that now are mostly in Greece, being descendants of the Greeks relocated from Turkey in 1923:
As you can see (if you are informed about that), the sounds are similar with the music of Balkan peoples (Croatians and Romanians excluded):