Saturday, February 28, 2015
'DAPHNE' is the Ancient Greek word for 'LAUREL' though Daphne is botanically a different unrelated evergreen shrub in the Thymelaeaceae family; Laurus being the Latin translation.
Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), on the other hand, was used for the adorning of the famous 'laurel wreaths' of Ancient Greece, from which we get the modern terms "baccalaureate, poet laureate, resting on one's laurels," etc.
A laurel wreath is a circular wreath made of interlocking branches and leaves of the bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), an aromatic broadleaf evergreen of the Mediterranean region. Later in history spineless butcher's broom (Ruscus hypoglossum) or cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) were sometimes used as substitutes for true Bay branches.
In Greek mythology, Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. In ancient Greece, wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions, including the ancient Olympics, where they made wreaths of wild olive-trees at Olympia, known as "kotinos" (κότινος), and also in poetic meets.
Why are bay laurels sacred to Apollo? The reason for this is because the prevailing tradition has it that Apollo fell in love with the daughter of the river god, Ladon, whose name was Daphne, a female nymph associated with fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of freshwater. Because of her beauty, Daphne attracted the god Apollo, who pursued her and just before being overtaken, Daphne called out to her father for help... So he then transformed Daphne into a laurel tree. This is the origin of the myth and tradition.
In Rome, laurel wreaths were symbols of victory in battle, crowning a successful commander during his triumph. Most ancient laurel wreaths are depicted as a horseshoe shape, whereas modern versions are usually complete rings. Laurel wreaths symbolically indicate a victory or triumph or acclaim.
In some countries the laurel wreath is used as a symbol of the master's degree. The wreath is given to young masters in the graduation ceremony of the university. The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. 'Laureato' is the term used in Italy to refer to any graduated student. In Italy, right after the graduation ceremony (in Italian: laurea), the student receives a laurel wreath and is allowed to wear it for the rest of the day.
The images are: 'Victory, A Knight Being Crowned With A Laurel Wreath' by Frank Dicksee (1853-1928), photo: 'Boy With Laurel Wreath' by Wilhem von Gloeden (1856-1931), and 'Apollo and Daphne', by Pollaiolo, c. 1470–80.
In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory. The expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying entirely on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition.
Friday, February 27, 2015
11-20-2012, 03:34 AM
Join Date: Jul 2012
567 posts, read 412,772 times
I live in the far north. There are certainly blonds, but not "blond blond" if you know what I mean. True blonds like you'd see on the other side of the Alps are pretty rare (but not unknown), it's more like a dirty blond. There is the occasional redhead as well. Most people have darkish hair with skin tones ranging between light olive to brown. However, the south is indeed darker; I went to Napoli and the difference was striking, even when compared to Rome (which still has a bit more of a mix). I'm half Mexican with jet black hair and often get mistaken for a southerner; when I went to Napoli, dudes trying to sell me stuff kept calling me "paisano", which is a term that a southerner would only use to refer to a fellow southerner.
Originally Posted by Dub D
I traveled all over Europe last year and I'm planning on doing it again this year. I went all over Italy from Florence, down to Capri and Rome, then back up to Venice and Verona. I went to damn near every part minus Milan which I plan on doing this year.
Italian men are very small. I'd say the average height is like 5'6. I'm 5'11 and I do work out and I felt like a GIANT. I tried buying a jacket, nothing fit. They are very slight, thin men.
Italian women, not much shorter than the men. I'd say the average height is probably 5'3.
Face wise...come on now, how the hell can you tell? You tell me the differnce between 100 Spaniards, Italians, Greeks, and Arabs and I guarantee you'll get half of them wrong.
I'm Arab/Turkish and natives in Spain, Italy, and Greece thought I was from their country. Several times when I was waiting for the bus/tub/subway, I got asked for directions in Spanish/Italian/Greek. If the natives can't tell the difference, how can you?
Overall vague differences. Spaniards are slightly lighter skinned, dark brown hair, and IMO...better looking.
Italians. Shorter and slighter.
Greeks. Darkest of the three and most obese.
2013-01-07 @ 11:48
Are Greeks the darkest European?
Are they swarthiest in Europe?(exclude cypriot and maltese people).An Arab who visited south europe said that greeks are the darkest south european. Is it true? http://answers.yahoo.com/question/in...4090355AAgaLkQ
Reply With Quote
2012-03-25 12:07 # ADS
Crimson Guard Dec 21 2008, 12:00 AM Post #33
Apr 2, 2008
Hmm, these funny internet terms, "Western", "Ambiguous" and "Ethnic" reminds me of Morello speak 2003! On what planet are Iberians more "Western" looking than Italians?! In fact most people would have trouble telling them apart,same with the French. Heck all three countries share the same Phenotypes.
BTW, that youtube is of poor picture quality, but it still doesnt show anybody being "ambiguous" as your making it out Caudium. I dont follow on the "European-Looking" by American standards statement either.. this isnt the early 1900's when even Irish werent considered European ect.
Coon differentiated the Mediterranean Proper(Short Med./Gracile Med.) from the Atlanto-Mediterranean primarily based on height as I previously stated. Also he believed the Upper Paleolithic types to have been of Neanderthaloid descent and separate from the Mediterranean(which includes its depigmented form, the Nordic).
Yeah Axmud I already said that before, but also check this:
Short-statured, dolicho- and mesocephalic form found in Spain, Portugal, the western Mediterranean islands, and to some extent in North Africa, southern Italy, and other Mediterranean borderlands. Its purest present-day racial nucleus is without doubt Arabia. Most of the Cappadocian, isolated in the skeletal material, seems to have been absorbed into the western Mediterranean variety after its early Metal Age migration, while that which remained in Asia Minor became assimilated into the Dinaric and Armenoid. It still appears, however, among individuals in its original form, and is particularly common among Oriental Jews.
The "Mediterranean" racial family is just as "white," in the larger meaning of the word, as the Upper Palaeolithic family. Its chief differences from the latter are: a smaller brain size, a moderate body size, and a lack of the excessive specializations which characterize the northern group. The Mediterranean group seems to be of purely sapiens ancestry, without Neanderthaloid or other mixture.
Before the Neolithic, the principal branches of the Mediterranean family must already have come into existence. Some Mediterraneans were probably white skinned, and others brown; it is also possible that the differences in hair and eye color which so strongly distinguish living Mediterranean sub-varieties had already come into existence.
Mediterranean from Arabia:
A youthful Yemeni from the desert-border tribe of Hadha. Facially he is a perfect example of a refined Mediterranean type; his head length is a little short, his stature a little tall, for the mean. He is a brunet-white in unexposed skin color, brunet in hair and eye color; narrower-faced than any of the Upper Palaeolithic survivors, reduced or unreduced, whom we have seen in the preceding plates. His forehead and jaw are both consistently narrow. It is a characteristic of the Mediterranean race, as of this individual, that the upper face height and nose height are great, no matter how small the other dimensions. Imagine this individual pink-skinned, blue-eyed, and blond-haired, and you will have a close approximation to a Nordic. There is no essential difference between the two races other than pigmentation. Both, however, are separated by a wide racial gap from the Upper Palaeolithic group.
Closely similar to the Syrian desert border tribesman is this Afridi from eastern Afghanistan. Its high, narrow cranial vault, in combination with a great facial and nasal height, and its general cast of cranial features makes this type nearly identical with that of the Corded people who invaded Europe from the east toward the beginning of the third millennium B.C.
Edited by Crimson Guard, Dec 21 2008, 12:12 AM.
Tuesday, February 24, 2015
Sunday, February 22, 2015
arrogant cheater nadal complained that umpire point out that nadal break the rule of 20 seconds serve
|egyptian music -|
|Egyptian music has been an important part of Egyptian culture since ancient time. The ancient Egyptians credited the god Thod with the invention of music. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates back to the pre-dynastic period. In the Old Kingdom, harps, flutes and double clarinets were played. Percussion instruments, lyres and lutes were added by the time of the Middle Kingdom. Cymbals frequently accompanied music and dance, as they still do in Egypt today. Ancient Egyptian religion included many rituals designed to appeal to their pantheon of Gods and Goddesses and special troupes were formed and trained specifically for this purpose. Musical troupes also found patronage in royal and private households and entertained the elite during their sumptuous banquets. Ancient Egyptian music was linked to religious rituals as well as worldly entertainment: it was skilful, rich and diverse and influenced by religion, politics, trade, conquest and invasion.Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi zikr rituals, is the contemporary music genre that is closest to ancient Egyptian music. These rituals have preserved many of its features, rhythm and instruments. Egyptian folk instruments bear a striking resemblance to their pharaonic ancestors. An ancient arghul for example was found in the tomb of Tutakhamen and can be seen in the Egyptian Museum. Ethnomusicologists can also draw conclusions on how certain instruments were played in ancient Egypt from the position of the hands, for example, and from how they are played today in different regions in the country. Here again, striking similarities between the past and the present have been found.|
The Christian era (beginning in 43) and the Arab conquest which followed (639) had a profound influence on the arts and culture of Egypt. The liturgical music of the Coptic Church is said to have preserved features of ancient Egyptian music. After the Arab conquest, musical tradition entered a new era and thrived. As they did with all other art forms, the Arabs promoted music, enabling a fine and complex art to develop, which spread and flourished across the Arab Empire. Arabic music is usually said to have begun in the 7th century in Syria during the Umayyad Dynasty. Early Arabic music was influenced by Byzantine, Indian and Persian forms, which were themselves influenced by earlier Greek, Semitic and ancient Egyptian music.
Egyptian music throughout history has blended indigenous ancient Egyptian traditions with African, Arab, Turkish and Western elements. Diverse music genres have derived from these influences, each of which is characterized by a particular lawn (colour). The music genres found in Egypt are interconnected and have impermeable borders through which a constant flow takes place from one genre to the other. For example, an Egyptian qanun player may perfom for a small gathering of music lovers, be a member of a radio ensemble and play in night clubs in Cairo or London. An accordion might accompany a classical orchestra and the next day play at a baladi wedding in the streets of Cairo. Keeping this special situation in Egypt in mind, we can today distinguish 6 different genres:
The Egyptian shaabi or folk music traditions are rich and diverse and differ according to the region: the first, southernmost area around Assuan with its Nubian and African influences; the second called Upper Egypt or the Sa´id from Luxor to Gerga; thirdly the region from El Minya to the Nile Delta and the shores of the Mediterranean, and finally Egypt’s deserts and oases. Egypt’s rural people, the Fellahin, the Sa´ida, the Bedu, the Nubi and other tribes like the Nawar settled along the Nile throughout the centuries and have formed a complex society with diverse ethnic, religious and social backgrounds. They have passed on their music traditions orally, without any system of notation, from generation to generation, throughout Egypt’s long history. These traditions are always closely intertwined with the social and religious life of the ethnic groups of each region, but are increasingly threatened by socioeconomic changes in society, politics and growing religious fundamentalism. In Egypt itself, music has not been documented to a large extent and few good quality recordings exist. Egyptian religious music, such as the liturgical music of the Coptic Church, the Sufi music of the mystical branch of Islam, or the Islamic Koran recitations, is threatened by the growing influence of an aggressive version that is being spread by the conservative Islamic branches. The Egyptian urban music tradition, baladi music, was born out of Egyptian city life at the turn of the last century (1920s). It has been influenced by European instruments like the accordion but follows the musical structures of the Egyptian shaabi music. This music form is also called Egyptian jazz and reached its creative climax in the 1970s. Today, the masters of this music form have reached old age and baladi music is almost a thing of the past. Like the shaabi music traditions, this particular form of music has not been documented much in Egypt because it belonged to and derived from the lower social classes. Arab/Egyptian art music and Egypt’s film music are well documented in recordings and films as Egypt was the centre of the Arab film and music industry for many decades (1940s – 1950s). These music forms are taught in conservatories and art schools around the country. This is also true for Egyptian pop music which follows the rules of business and commerce. These facts also explain why we have our focus on the shaabi and baladi music traditions, which are in danger of dying out.
CD Daqat I (tanz raum), CD Daqat II (tanz raum)
Egyptian shaabi music
CD Al Masdar (tanz raum), CD Music of the fellahin, CD Music of the ghawazee
Egyptian baladi music
CD Spirit of the Heart (tanz raum), CD Ruh El Fuad (tanz raum), CD Sultana (tanz raum)
Egyptian art music
CD Monaga (tanz raum), CD Jewels (tanz raum)
|Egyptian music – instruments||Egyptian folk instruments or shaabi instruments bear a striking resemblance to their pharaonic ancestors.|
The tanbura is a pentatonic, five-stringed lyre, particularly known in Upper Egypt and often seen in Cairo in ancient times. It has a bowl or rectangular-shaped resonator and a wooden frame consisting of two laterals supporting a yoke. The right-hand fingers usually sweep across all the strings at once while the left hand fingers are used to stop the strings whose tones are not needed at that moment. This technique resembles that shown on monuments in ancient Egypt.
The Suez region provides a type of instrument of a slightly smaller size called simsimiyya. The instrument emerged in the region of the Suez Canal probably around the turn of the 20th century. Until recent times each ship employed a simsimiyya player who would bring joy to the voyage and it was also believed that they had the power to make the winds rise. It is linked to the bambutia dance, singing and also the practice of the zar.
The rababa is the earliest known fiddle, a bowed instrument with two strings, and is associated with folk and art music. The rababa was used by classical takht ensembles before being replaced by the western violin. The playing of the rababa can reach sophisticated heights and in these moments the line between art and folk music becomes blurred.
The nay with its many variations is a flute made of a reed with five or six finger holes on the front and one on the back. It occupies a major place in the Egyptian folk music tradition, the mystical Sufi orders as well as in art music. It is one of the oldest and simplest known instruments from the days of the ancient Egyptians. The kawala is a variation of the nay. It is shorter than the nay and has an additional finger hole.
The mizmar is a wooden oboe with a conical bore. Different mouth pieces can be exchanged and produce different tones with a penetrating sound.
Traditionally this instrument accompanies songs, public processions and certain traditional dances such as the tahtib, Egypt’s combat dance performed by men, raqs el khail, the dance of the horse, and gawazee dances.
There are many sizes and types of mizmar instruments. The smallest that is just 30 cm long is called a sibs.
Egyptian percussion instruments are numerous and important as rhythm is vital in Egyptian music:
The tabla baladi accompanies the professional mizmar ensembles at processions and dances. It is a double-skinned bass drum, beaten with a thick stick on one side and with a thin stick on the other side. The tabla baladi hangs at an angle from the player’s neck.
The nagrazan is a copper drum that hangs around the musician’s neck and is played with two wooden sticks held in both hands. It is used for the traditional tahtib music as well as Sufi music.
The heavy vase-shaped drum made of earthenware and fish skin is called tabla or darabuka. It was used traditionally by the awalim to accompany their wedding songs and is still present in most shaabi ensembles.
The doholla is the tabla’s bigger brother with a deeper sound. The duff is a simple wooden frame drum with a single membrane made of goat skin.
The tiny round copper cymbals which are attached to dancers’ or musicians’ thumbs and middle fingers are called sagat. They were used by the awalim and the ghawazee to accompany their singing and dancing.
The arghul is double-piped clarinet with a mouthpiece. The longer tube acts as a drone and produces a very rich sound. It is a typical Egyptian instrument which traditionally accompanied epic songs, mawaweel and dances. An ancient arghul was found in the tomb of Tutakhamen and can be seen in the Egyptian Museum. The virtuoso playing of musicians like Mustapha Abdel Aziz reminds us of its noble past. He passed away some years ago.
The accordion is a European invention from the 19th century. It is mostly associated with the common people and was spread by Europeans who emigrated to different countries. It became popular among folk musicians and has been integrated into traditional music styles all over the world.
In Egypt the accordion is used in the urban baladi music, which developed in urban areas like Cairo, Alexandria or El Minya during the turn of the last century. There it took on an important role in the instrumental solo improvisations and the accompaniment of the Mawal, the improvisation of the voice. The European accordion has been adjusted technically by Egyptian musicians to play the quarter tones in Egyptian music. It is interesting to know that different accordion craftsmen or players like Gamil Gamel often tune the same registers in a slightly different manner to personalize their accordion. Other European instruments that have been incorporated into this particular musical form are the saxophone, the clarinet and the trumpet.
The music instruments found in the Egyptian-Arab art music are req, oud, kamanga (violin) and qanoon.
|egyptian music -|
|Past, current and future music projects give rise to stage, CD and DVD productions. These again help to preserve the wealth of Egyptian music, which is partly in danger of dying out, for future generations.|
Pure enthusiasm for Egypt is what makes us record music from this country. We believe that there are many others who share our excitement and would like to help to preserve a rich and beautiful part of the world cultural heritage. Thank you for supporting the artists by buying our records. We hope you enjoy listening to them as much as we enjoyed making them!
These recordings featuring outstanding Egyptian composers, singers and musicians playing classical, contemporary and traditional music are a valuable addition to the collections of music lovers, teachers and dancers and can be ordered directly from the music shop on this website.
» to order our products
Saturday, February 21, 2015
The pandura (Ancient Greek: πανδοῦρα, pandoura) is an ancient Greek string instrument from the Mediterranean basin.
Lutes have been present in ancient Greece since the 3rd century BC. They were also present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BCE.
The ancient Greek pandoura was a medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber. It commonly had three strings: such an instrument was also known as the trichordon (McKinnon 1984:10).  Renato Meucci (1996) suggests that the some Italian Renaissance descendants of Pandura type were called chitarra italiana, mandore or mandola. In the 18th century the pandurina (mandore) was often referred to as mandolino napoletano.
Saturday, February 14, 2015
Possible Pre-Greek loanwords
- Personal names (e.g. Ὀδυσσεύς Odysseus)
- Theonyms (e.g. Ἑρμῆς Hermes)
- Maritime vocabulary (e.g. θάλασσα thálassa 'sea')
- Words relating to Mediterranean agriculture (e.g. ἐλαίϝα elai(w)a 'olive,' ἄμπελος ampelos 'vine')
- Words regarding rulers, given by the populace (e.g. Τύραννος Tyrannos 'tyrant')
- Building technology (e.g. πύργος pyrgos 'tower')
- Placenames including -nth- (e.g. Κόρινθος Korinthos, Ζάκυνθος Zakynthos), -ss- (e.g. Παρνασσός Parnassos) and -tt- (e.g. Ὑμηττός Hymettus)
Substratum theoriesVarious explanations have been put forward for these substrate features. Among these are:
Minoan substratumThe existence of a Minoan (Eteocretan) substratum is the view of Arthur Evans who assumed widespread Minoan colonisation of the Aegean, policed by a Minoan thalassocracy.
Anatolian Indo-European substratumAn Anatolian (perhaps specifically Luwian) substratum has been proposed, on the basis of -ss- and -nd- (corresponding to -ss- and -nth- in mainland Greece) placenames being widespread in Western Anatolia. However, of the few words of secure Anatolian origin, most are cultural items or commodities likely the result of commercial exchange, not of a substratum.
- Anatolian loanwords:
- Apóllōn (Doric Apéllōn, Cypriot Apeílōn), from *Apeljōn, as in Hit. Appaliunaš;
- dépas ‘cup; pot, vessel’, Mycenaean di-pa, from H-Luw. ti-pa-s ‘sky; bowl, cup’ (cf. Hit. nēpis ‘sky; cup’);
- eléphās ‘ivory’, from Hit. laḫpa (itself from Mesopotamia; cf. Phoen. ʾlp, Egypt. Ȝbw);
- kýanos ‘dark blue glaze; enamel’, from Hit. kuwannan- ‘copper ore; azurite’ (ultimately from Sumerian kù-an);
- kýmbachos ‘helmet’, from Hit. kupaḫi ‘headgear’;
- kýmbalon ‘cymbal’, from Hit. ḫuḫupal ‘wooden percussion instrument’;
- mólybdos ‘lead’, Mycenaean mo-ri-wo-do, from *morkʷ-io- ‘dark’, as in Lydian mariwda(ś)-k ‘the dark ones’;
- óbryza ‘vessel for refining gold’, from Hit. ḫuprušḫi ‘vessel’;
- tolýpē ‘ball of wool’, from Hit. taluppa ‘lump’ (or C-Luw. taluppa/i).
Tyrrhenian substratumOn the basis of statements in Thucydides that Tyrrhenian was a former language of Athens and that the Tyrrhenians had been expelled to Lemnos, it has been suggested that the substrate language was related to Lemnian, and thus by modern association to Etruscan.
Other possibilitiesThe possibility exists that the source may be more than one of these possibilities, or that vocabulary may have entered the Proto-Greek language before its speakers actually reached Greece and its pre-Indo-European population. Confusingly, the words wánax (king) and wánassa (queen), terms that would be expected to originate from a local prestige language or superstratum, also may appear as natak ('lord') and nasi ('lady) in the Tocharian languages, spoken far to the east by a people not known to have ever visited Greece.
That being said it's been a while since I looked at my modes and scales that deeply, so someone else might have a better idea.
Some Greeks held that the Etruscans were a branch of the Pelasgians, aboriginal inhabitants of the Aegean region, others such as Virgil thought they came from Lydia, a kingdom of western Anatolia. The Greek master historian Herodotus also ascribes the origin of the Etruscans to Lydia. Herodotus says the ancestors of the Etruscans were forced to emigrate from Lydia because of 18 years of hard times. The Lydians built ships and half of the population left under the leadership of Tyrrhenus, the son of the king of Lydia.
The Pelasgians may have been the Sea People who around 1200 B.C. invaded the Egyptian Empire. The Greek historian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Early History of Rome dismissed these theory and argued that the Etruscan were the aboriginal inhabitants of their area.
The question became more intriguing when, in the nineteenth century, it was discovered that most of the languages of Europe belonged to one big language family called Indo-European but Etruscan was not one of them.
Although the early history of the Etruscans is uncertain the later history is well known. By about 700 B.C. the major Etruscan cities had been founded. The Etruscan culture was flourishing during the the sixth century B.C.; i.e., the century of the 500's B.C. As the Etruscan culture burgeoned it ran into constraint on its expansion due to strong cultures and geographic confinements bordering its home region. This led to an expansion into the Po River Valley to the northeast. Also at this time there was an aggressive expansion of Greek culture on the Italian Peninsula, the islands of Corsica and Sicily and what is now the south coast of France. Commercial rivalry of the Etruscans and Greeks led to military confrontation which, on balance, the Etruscans lost. By about 500 B.C. the Etruscans were losing not only to the Greeks but also to former tributary peoples such as the Romans. By 400 B.C. the Etruscans were being politically subordinated to the Romans. The Romans adopted numerous elements of Etruscan culture, including the Etruscan alphabet which the Etruscans had adopted from the Greeks. The Latin letters of European civilization, the letters which you see before you, had their origin in the Etruscan alphabet. Of course this alphabet and that of the Greeks had their origin in the alphabet of the Phoenicians.
The Origin of the Etruscans
The question of the origin of a people necessarily has a complex answer. The matter of the origin of the culture of a people has to be separated from genetic origins of the people who practice that culture. The culture of a people may, and generally does, have multiple roots. Consider the origins of the people of Mexico. The genetic origins are mixed between aboriginal people of the region and people from Europe predominantly Spain. The culture likewise has mixed origins. The cultural mix is predominantly European as in the case of the language spoken but the genetic mix is predominantly aboriginal. The conquest of Mexico by the conquistadors was probably typical of what occurred throughout history.
What probably occurred in Tuscany was a numerically small element coming from who knows where settled and conquered the iron age population. The invaders brought a culture, including perhaps the language, which the conquered population adopted in part. The genetic origin of the people who became the Etruscans could well have been predominantly the aboriginal population. The aboriginal population may have settled in the area millenia prior to the invasion. The aboriginal people may have been the people of the Villanovan Culture.
The technology of DNA analysis has been applied to the question of origins. A study published in the April 2007 issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics reports finding eleven lineages of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany that have not been found elsewhere in Europe but do occur in the Near East.
A brilliant line of investigation was followed by Marco Pellecchia and Paolo Ajmone-Marsan of the Catholic University in Piacenza. They examined the mitochondrial DNA of cattle in Tuscan and found some breeds were genetically related to breeds of cattle in the Near East. The other breeds were European in origin. What these two studies indicate is that there were some Near Eastern sources for the Etruscans. The other possibility is that the Pelasgians, if they were the same as the Sea People, may have settled in the Near East as well as in Tuscany. The Sea People were the origin of at least the name Palestinians. But, in any case, the migrants from the sea probably were not the dominant genetic basis for the Etruscan population.
It is perhaps appropriate to note here that genetic information can sometimes be misinterpreted. For example, a study of the genetic origin of the Greeks claimed that they had a sub-Saharan origin. The was probably done just for sensationalism. What was really involved is that there were genetic sources for the population of Crete among the semitic elements of the Near East. The source of the Ethiopian culture was a pre-Islamic migration of semitic Arabs from south Arabia into the Horn of Africa Region. Thus by identifying genetic elements from semitic migrations into the Greece and Ethiopia the investigators came up with a sensational but fallacious claim for a sub-Saharan origin for the ancient Greeks.
But genetic origins may be less important than cultural origins. The origin of the culture of the Etruscans would be the more interesting question. But even if migrants brought the dominant element of the Etruscan culture the aboriginal people may have retained some elements of the old culture. This could have included the language or some substantial share of the language. For example, the origin of the Bulgarian state is from the conquest of a Slavic people by the Bulgar Turks who had previously resided about a thousand miles to the east. The language of the Bulgarians is the Slavic language of the conquered people and the about the only residue of the conquerors in Bulgaria is the name of the people and the country.
When people raise the question of the origins of the Etruscans they are primarily concerned with the distinctive features of Etruscan culture. Although it is not clear where these cultural features came from it is clear that there is a strong possibility that they came from the Near East.
The literature on the question of Etruscan origins groups the various positions into
1. Northern Origins
2. Oriental (eastern) Origins
3. No Origins Outside of Etruria
The Northern Origins advocates point to similarities of features of region to the cultures of the peoples of the Alps. This includes such things as the terramare villages. Quite likely the aboriginal peoples of North Italy did have their origins to the north. The cultural features of the Etruscans is a different matter and the affinities with the cultures of the Middle East are quite striking.
The question of the linguistic relationships of the Etruscan language is not necessarily the same as the affinities of the rest of the culture. Although the 10,000 samples of Etruscan writings have not been deciphered enough is known to conclude that Etruscan was not a member of the Indo-European language family. There are many interesting possible relationships but none have been established. It may well be, as in the case of Basque, that there are no other surviving members of its family.
So the question of the origins of the cultural features of the Etruscans has to be answered without the help of linguistic analysis. Much attention has been focused on the funerary practices of the people of North Italy. The Etruscans cremated their dead and put the ashes in elaborate funeral urns. The funerary practices of the Etruscans could well be that of the aboriginal population with the art and technology of the invading people enhancing the old practice with fancy urns. So the question of the origins of Etruscan art will probably not be settled by establishing the origins of other aspects of Etruscan culture. If it can be settled at all it will have to settled on the basis of the affinities of the art with that of the other major cultures of the region.
The Etruscans' Naval Prowess
Greek sources speak of the domination of the eastern and western seas by Etruscan pirates. The Etruscans established colonies on Corsica, Sardinia, the Balearic Isles and perhaps even Spain. The Adriatic Sea, the sea to the east of the Italian Peninsula, was named after the Etruscan port of Adria. The sea west of the peninsula was called the Tyrrhenian Sea after Tyrrhenus a supposed founder of the Etruscans from Lydia in western Anatolia.
In the Etruscan ruins there are craft objects from Greece, North Africa, southern France and Iberia. These could have been brought by Greek or Phoenician traders to Etruria but given the naval prowess of the Etruscan there is no reason to doubt that Etruscan traders were involved in bringing those craft objects to Etruria. In any case the exports of Etruria was probably copper and iron from the local mines.
In the mythology and literature of the Greeks there are also references to Pelasgian piracy, which since some Greeks believed the Etruscans were Pelasgians, could have been references to Etruscans.
Massimo Pallottino, The Etruscans, Penguin Books, 1956.
Some background information:
•Pelasgians: This is the name used by the ancient Greeks for the people who lived in the Aegean area before the Greeks entered the area about 1200 B.C.
•People of the Sea: The name used by the Egyptians for the peoples who invaded the eastern Mediterranean territories of the Egyptian Empire. Those that the Egyptians allowed to settle in the area became known as the Philistines. Their origin is uncertain but they appear to have come from the Aegean region although this may have just been only a temporary place of sojourn.
•Villanovan Culture: A culture of North Italy first identified from their cemeteries of a distinctive type pottery urn. It appears to be a part of the Urnfield Culture of eastern Europe which arrived in Italy at the beginning of the first millenium B.C. The Villanovans produced copper and iron from mines in the Tuscany region. The Villanovan Culture was influenced and displaced by the cultures of the Greeks and later the Etruscans.
•Terramare: Prehistoric (Second millenium B.C.) settlements in the Po River Valley built on pilings and surrounded by an embankment and moat to protect them from flood waters as well as invaders.
I ordered a kit for my full brother, started with the Y-DNA 12 marker test. After weeks of waiting, FtDNA pins me down to the Q Haplogroup, but decides they need to do further backbone testing. I'm all for accuracy so I wait 8 more weeks for it to finish.
Here's what they say is the final results:
Your Confirmed Haplogroup is Q-M3
Haplogroup Q1a3a1 is the only lineage strictly associated with native American populations. This haplogroup is defined by the presence of the M3 mutation...
Here is my problem -- no one on my paternal side is Native American. I'm the second generation born in the US on my dad's side. My grandfather was born in Germany, his father was born in the same town in Germany, and prior to that it was Austria.
I am not understanding this right? FtDNA specifically says
"Haplogroup Q1a3a1 is the only lineage strictly associated with native American populations."
I'm totally confused at this point. What should I do?
Haplogroup Q is a brother of R so it is not unusual that it is found in Europeans also. I said it a long time ago that I thought that R and Q may have originated in Austria.
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